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Hwæt. We Gardena in geardagum, LO, praise of the prowess of people-kingsþeodcyninga, þrym gefrunon, of spear-armed Danes, in days long sped,hu ða æþelingas ellen fremedon. we have heard, and what honor the athelings won!Oft Scyld Scefing sceaþena/ þreatum, Oft Scyld the Scefing from squadroned foes,monegum mægþum, meodosetla ofteah, from many a tribe, the mead-bench tore,egsode eorlas. Syððan ærest wearð/ awing the earls. Since erst he layfeasceaft funden, he þæs frofre gebad, friendless, a foundling, fate repaid him:weox under wolcnum, weorðmyndum þah, for he waxed under welkin, in wealth he throve,oðþæt him æghwylc þara ymbsittendra till before him the folk, both far and near,ofer hronrade hyran scolde, who house by the whale-path, heard his mandate,gomban gyldan. þæt wæs god cyning. gave him gifts: a good king he!ðæm eafera wæs æfter cenned, To him an heir was afterward born,geong in geardum, þone god sende a son in his halls, whom heaven sentfolce to frofre; fyrenðearfe ongeat to favor the folk, feeling their woeþe hie ær drugon aldorlease/ that erst they had lacked an earl for leaderlange hwile. Him þæs liffrea, so long a while; the Lord endowed him,wuldres wealdend, woroldare forgeaf; the Wielder of Wonder, with world's renown.Beowulf wæs breme blæd wide sprang/, Famed was this Beowulf: far flew the boast of him,Scyldes eafera Scedelandum in. son of Scyld, in the Scandian lands.Swa sceal geong/ guma/ gode gewyrcean, So becomes it a youth to quit him wellfromum feohgiftum on fæder bearme/, with his father's friends, by fee and gift,þæt hine on ylde eft gewunigen that to aid him, aged, in after days,wilgesiþas, þonne wig cume, come warriors willing, should war draw nigh,leode gelæsten; lofdædum sceal liegemen loyal: by lauded deedsin mægþa gehwære man geþeon. shall an earl have honor in every clan.Him ða Scyld gewat to gescæphwile Forth he fared at the fated moment,felahror feran on frean wære. sturdy Scyld to the shelter of God.Hi hyne þa ætbæron to brimes faroðe, Then they bore him over to ocean's billow,swæse gesiþas, swa he selfa bæd, loving clansmen, as late he charged them,þenden wordum weold wine Scyldinga; while wielded words the winsome Scyld,leof landfruma lange ahte. the leader beloved who long had ruled....þær æt hyðe stod hringedstefna, In the roadstead rocked a ring-dight vessel,isig ond utfus, æþelinges fær. ice-flecked, outbound, atheling's barge:Aledon þa leofne þeoden, there laid they down their darling lordbeaga bryttan, on bearm scipes, on the breast of the boat, the breaker-of-rings,mærne be mæste. þær wæs madma fela by the mast the mighty one. Many a treasureof feorwegum, frætwa, gelæded; fetched from far was freighted with hyrde ic cymlicor ceol gegyrwan No ship have I known so nobly dighthildewæpnum ond heaðowædum, with weapons of war and weeds of battle,billum ond byrnum; him on bearme læg with breastplate and blade: on his bosom laymadma mænigo, þa him mid scoldon a heaped hoard that hence should goon flodes æht feor gewitan. far o'er the flood with him floating away.Nalæs hi hine læssan lacum teodan, No less these loaded the lordly gifts,þeodgestreonum, þon þa dydon thanes' huge treasure, than those had doneþe hine æt frumsceafte forð onsendon who in former time forth had sent himænne ofer yðe umborwesende. sole on the seas, a suckling child.þa gyt hie him asetton segen geldenne/ High o'er his head they hoist the standard,heah ofer heafod, leton holm beran/, a gold-wove banner; let billows take him,geafon on garsecg; him wæs geomor sefa, gave him to ocean. Grave were their spirits,murnende mod. Men ne cunnon mournful their mood. No man is ablesecgan to soðe, selerædende/, to say in sooth, no son of the halls,hæleð under heofenum, hwa þæm hlæste onfeng. no hero 'neath heaven, -- who harbored that freight!ða wæs on burgum Beowulf Scyldinga, Now Beowulf bode in the burg of the Scyldings,leof leodcyning, longe þrage leader beloved, and long he ruledfolcum gefræge fæder ellor hwearf, in fame with all folk, since his father had gonealdor of earde, oþþæt him eft onwoc away from the world, till awoke an heir,heah Healfdene; heold þenden lifde, haughty Healfdene, who held through life,gamol ond guðreouw, glæde Scyldingas. sage and sturdy, the Scyldings glad.ðæm feower bearn forð gerimed Then, one after one, there woke to him,in worold wocun, weoroda ræswan/, to the chieftain of clansmen, children four:Heorogar ond Hroðgar ond Halga til; Heorogar, then Hrothgar, then Halga brave;hyrde ic þæt wæs/ Onelan cwen, and I heard that -- was --'s queen,Heaðoscilfingas healsgebedda. the Heathoscylfing's helpmate dear.þa wæs Hroðgare heresped gyfen, To Hrothgar was given such glory of war,wiges weorðmynd, þæt him his winemagas such honor of combat, that all his kingeorne hyrdon, oðð þæt seo geogoð geweox, obeyed him gladly till great grew his bandmagodriht micel. Him on mod bearn of youthful comrades. It came in his mindþæt healreced hatan wolde, to bid his henchmen a hall uprear,medoærn/ micel, men gewyrcean a master mead-house, mightier farþonne/ yldo bearn æfre gefrunon, than ever was seen by the sons of earth,ond þær on innan eall gedælan and within it, then, to old and younggeongum ond ealdum, swylc him god sealde, he would all allot that the Lord had sent him,buton folcscare ond feorum gumena. save only the land and the lives of his men.ða ic wide gefrægn weorc gebannan Wide, I heard, was the work commanded,manigre mægþe geond þisne middangeard, for many a tribe this mid-earth round,folcstede frætwan. Him on fyrste gelomp, to fashion the folkstead. It fell, as he ordered,ædre mid yldum, þæt hit wearð ealgearo, in rapid achievement that ready it stood there,healærna mæst; scop him Heort naman of halls the noblest: Heorot he named itse þe his wordes geweald wide hæfde. whose message had might in many a land.He beot ne aleh, beagas dælde, Not reckless of promise, the rings he dealt,sinc æt symle. Sele hlifade, treasure at banquet: there towered the hall,heah ond horngeap, heaðowylma bad, high, gabled wide, the hot surge waitinglaðan liges; ne wæs hit lenge þa gen of furious flame. Nor far was that dayþæt se ecghete/ aþumsweorum/, when father and son-in-law stood in feudæfter wælniðe wæcnan scolde. for warfare and hatred that woke again.ða se ellengæst earfoðlice With envy and anger an evil spiritþrage geþolode, se þe in þystrum bad, endured the dole in his dark abode,þæt he dogora gehwam dream gehyrde that he heard each day the din of revelhludne in healle; þær wæs hearpan sweg, high in the hall: there harps rang out,swutol sang scopes. Sægde se þe cuþe clear song of the singer. He sang who knewfrumsceaft fira feorran reccan, tales of the early time of man,cwæð þæt se ælmihtiga eorðan worhte/, how the Almighty made the earth,wlitebeorhtne wang, swa wæter bebugeð, fairest fields enfolded by water,gesette sigehreþig sunnan ond monan set, triumphant, sun and moonleoman to leohte landbuendum for a light to lighten the land-dwellers,ond gefrætwade foldan sceatas and braided bright the breast of earthleomum ond leafum, lif eac gesceop with limbs and leaves, made life for allcynna gehwylcum þara ðe cwice hwyrfaþ. of mortal beings that breathe and move.Swa ða drihtguman dreamum lifdon So lived the clansmen in cheer and reveleadiglice, oððæt an ongan a winsome life, till one beganfyrene fremman/ feond on helle. to fashion evils, that field of hell.Wæs se grimma gæst Grendel haten, Grendel this monster grim was called,mære mearcstapa, se þe moras heold, march-riever mighty, in moorland living,fen ond fæsten; fifelcynnes eard in fen and fastness; fief of the giantswonsæli wer weardode hwile, the hapless wight a while had keptsiþðan him scyppend forscrifen hæfde since the Creator his exile Caines cynne. þone cwealm gewræc On kin of Cain was the killing avengedece drihten, þæs þe he Abel slog; by sovran God for slaughtered gefeah he þære fæhðe, ac he hine feor forwræc, Ill fared his feud, and far was he driven,metod for þy mane, mancynne fram. for the slaughter's sake, from sight of men.þanon untydras ealle onwocon, Of Cain awoke all that woful breed,eotenas ond ylfe ond orcneas, Etins and elves and evil-spirits,swylce gigantas/, þa wið gode wunnon as well as the giants that warred with Godlange þrage; he him ðæs lean forgeald. weary while: but their wage was paid them!Gewat ða neosian, syþðan niht becom, WENT he forth to find at fall of nighthean huses, hu hit Hringdene that haughty house, and heed whereveræfter beorþege gebun hæfdon. the Ring-Danes, outrevelled, to rest had gone.Fand þa ðær inne æþelinga gedriht Found within it the atheling bandswefan æfter symble; sorge ne cuðon, asleep after feasting and fearless of sorrow,wonsceaft wera. Wiht unhælo, of human hardship. Unhallowed wight,grim ond grædig, gearo sona wæs, grim and greedy, he grasped betimes,reoc ond reþe, ond on ræste genam wrathful, reckless, from resting-places,þritig þegna, þanon eft gewat thirty of the thanes, and thence he rushedhuðe hremig to ham faran, fain of his fell spoil, faring homeward,mid þære wælfylle wica neosan. laden with slaughter, his lair to seek.ða wæs on uhtan mid ærdæge Then at the dawning, as day was breaking,Grendles guðcræft gumum undyrne; the might of Grendel to men was known;þa wæs æfter wiste wop up ahafen, then after wassail was wail uplifted,micel morgensweg. Mære þeoden, loud moan in the morn. The mighty chief,æþeling ærgod, unbliðe sæt, atheling excellent, unblithe sat,þolode ðryðswyð, þegnsorge dreah, labored in woe for the loss of his thanes,syðþan hie þæs laðan last sceawedon, when once had been traced the trail of the fiend,wergan gastes; wæs þæt gewin to strang, spirit accurst: too cruel that sorrow,lað ond longsum. Næs hit lengra fyrst, too long, too loathsome. Not late the respite;ac ymb ane niht eft gefremede with night returning, anew beganmorðbeala mare ond no mearn fore, ruthless murder; he recked no whit,fæhðe ond fyrene; wæs to fæst on þam. firm in his guilt, of the feud and crime.þa wæs eaðfynde þe him elles hwær They were easy to find who elsewhere soughtgerumlicor ræste sohte/, in room remote their rest at night,bed æfter burum, ða him gebeacnod wæs, bed in the bowers, when that bale was shown,gesægd soðlice sweotolan tacne was seen in sooth, with surest token, --healðegnes hete; heold hyne syðþan the hall-thane's hate. Such held themselvesfyr ond fæstor se þæm feonde ætwand. far and fast who the fiend outran!Swa rixode ond wið rihte wan, Thus ruled unrighteous and raged his fillana wið eallum, oðþæt idel stod one against all; until empty stoodhusa selest. Wæs seo hwil micel; that lordly building, and long it bode so.XII wintra tid torn geþolode Twelve years' tide the trouble he bore,wine Scyldinga/, weana gehwelcne, sovran of Scyldings, sorrows in plenty,sidra sorga. Forðam secgum/ wearð, boundless cares. There came unhiddenylda bearnum, undyrne cuð, tidings true to the tribes of men,gyddum geomore, þætte Grendel wan in sorrowful songs, how ceaselessly Grendelhwile wið Hroþgar, heteniðas wæg, harassed Hrothgar, what hate he bore him,fyrene ond fæhðe fela missera, what murder and massacre, many a year,singale sæce, sibbe ne wolde feud unfading, -- refused consentwið manna hwone mægenes Deniga, to deal with any of Daneland's earls,feorhbealo feorran, fea þingian, make pact of peace, or compound for gold:ne þær nænig witena wenan þorfte still less did the wise men ween to getbeorhtre bote to banan/ folmum, great fee for the feud from his fiendish se/ æglæca ehtende wæs, But the evil one ambushed old and youngdeorc deaþscua, duguþe ond geogoþe, death-shadow dark, and dogged them still,seomade ond syrede, sinnihte heold lured, or lurked in the livelong nightmistige moras. men ne cunnon of misty moorlands: men may say nothwyder helrunan hwyrftum scriþað. where the haunts of these Hell-Runes be.Swa fela fyrena feond mancynnes, Such heaping of horrors the hater of men,atol angengea, oft gefremede, lonely roamer, wrought unceasing,heardra hynða. Heorot eardode, harassings heavy. O'er Heorot he lorded,sincfage sel sweartum nihtum; gold-bright hall, in gloomy nights;no he þone gifstol gretan moste, and ne'er could the prince approach his throne,maþðum for metode, ne his myne wisse. -- 'twas judgment of God, -- or have joy in his hall.þæt wæs wræc micel wine Scyldinga, Sore was the sorrow to Scyldings'-friend,modes brecða. Monig oft gesæt heart-rending misery. Many noblesrice to rune; ræd eahtedon sat assembled, and searched out counselhwæt swiðferhðum selest wære how it were best for bold-hearted menwið færgryrum to gefremmanne. against harassing terror to try their hand.Hwilum hie geheton æt hærgtrafum/ Whiles they vowed in their heathen faneswigweorþunga, wordum bædon altar-offerings, asked with wordsþæt him gastbona geoce gefremede that the slayer-of-souls would succor give themwið þeodþreaum. Swylc wæs þeaw hyra, for the pain of their people. Their practice this,hæþenra hyht; helle gemundon their heathen hope; 'twas Hell they thought ofin modsefan, metod hie ne cuþon, in mood of their mind. Almighty they knew not,dæda demend, ne wiston hie drihten god, Doomsman of Deeds and dreadful Lord,ne hie huru heofena helm herian ne cuþon, nor Heaven's-Helmet heeded they ever,wuldres waldend. Wa bið þæm ðe sceal Wielder-of-Wonder. -- Woe for that manþurh sliðne nið sawle bescufan who in harm and hatred hales his soulin fyres fæþm, frofre ne wenan, to fiery embraces; -- nor favor nor changewihte gewendan; wel bið þæm þe mot awaits he ever. But well for himæfter deaðdæge drihten secean that after death-day may draw to his Lord,ond to fæder fæþmum freoðo wilnian. and friendship find in the Father's arms!Swa ða mælceare maga Healfdenes THUS seethed unceasing the son of Healfdenesingala seað, ne mihte snotor hæleð with the woe of these days; not wisest menwean onwendan; wæs þæt gewin to swyð, assuaged his sorrow; too sore the anguish,laþ ond longsum, þe on ða leode becom, loathly and long, that lay on his folk,nydwracu niþgrim, nihtbealwa mæst. most baneful of burdens and bales of the night.þæt fram ham gefrægn Higelaces þegn, This heard in his home Hygelac's thane,god mid Geatum, Grendles dæda; great among Geats, of Grendel's wæs moncynnes mægenes strengest He was the mightiest man of valoron þæm dæge þysses lifes, in that same day of this our life,æþele ond eacen. Het him yðlidan stalwart and stately. A stout wave-walkergodne gegyrwan, cwæð, hu guðcyning he bade make ready. Yon battle-king, said he,ofer swanrade secean wolde, far o'er the swan-road he fain would seek,mærne þeoden, þa him wæs manna þearf. the noble monarch who needed men!ðone siðfæt him snotere ceorlas The prince's journey by prudent folklythwon logon, þeah he him leof wære; was little blamed, though they loved him dear;hwetton higerofne/, hæl sceawedon. they whetted the hero, and hailed good omens.Hæfde se goda Geata leoda And now the bold one from bands of Geatscempan gecorone þara þe he cenoste comrades chose, the keenest of warriorsfindan mihte; XVna sum e'er he could find; with fourteen mensundwudu sohte; secg wisade, the sea-wood he sought, and, sailor proved,lagucræftig mon, landgemyrcu. led them on to the land's confines.Fyrst forð gewat. Flota wæs on yðum, Time had now flown; afloat was the ship,bat under beorge. Beornas gearwe boat under bluff. On board they climbed,on stefn stigon; streamas wundon, warriors ready; waves were churningsund wið sande; secgas bæron sea with sand; the sailors boreon bearm nacan beorhte frætwe, on the breast of the bark their bright array,guðsearo geatolic; guman ut scufon, their mail and weapons: the men pushed off,weras on wilsið, wudu bundenne. on its willing way, the well-braced craft.Gewat þa ofer wægholm, winde gefysed, Then moved o'er the waters by might of the windflota famiheals fugle gelicost, that bark like a bird with breast of foam,oðþæt ymb antid oþres dogores till in season due, on the second day,wundenstefna gewaden hæfde the curved prow such course had runþæt ða liðende land gesawon, that sailors now could see the land,brimclifu blican, beorgas steape, sea-cliffs shining, steep high hills,side sænæssas; þa wæs sund liden, headlands broad. Their haven was found,eoletes æt ende. þanon up hraðe their journey ended. Up then quicklyWedera leode on wang stigon, the Weders' clansmen climbed ashore,sæwudu sældon syrcan hrysedon, anchored their sea-wood, with armor clashingguðgewædo, gode þancedon and gear of battle: God they thankedþæs þe him yþlade eaðe wurdon. for passing in peace o'er the paths of the sea.þa of wealle geseah weard Scildinga, Now saw from the cliff a Scylding clansman,se þe holmclifu healdan scolde, a warden that watched the water-side,beran ofer bolcan beorhte randas, how they bore o'er the gangway glittering shields,fyrdsearu fuslicu; hine fyrwyt bræc war-gear in readiness; wonder seized himmodgehygdum, hwæt þa men wæron. to know what manner of men they were.Gewat him þa to waroðe wicge ridan Straight to the strand his steed he rode,þegn Hroðgares, þrymmum cwehte Hrothgar's henchman; with hand of mightmægenwudu mundum, meþelwordum frægn: he shook his spear, and spake in parley.Hwæt syndon ge searohæbbendra, "Who are ye, then, ye armed men,byrnum werede, þe þus brontne ceol mailed folk, that yon mighty vesselofer lagustræte lædan cwomon, have urged thus over the ocean ways,hider ofer holmas? le/ wæs here o'er the waters? A warden I,endesæta, ægwearde heold, sentinel set o'er the sea-march here,þe on land Dena laðra nænig lest any foe to the folk of Danesmid scipherge sceðþan ne meahte. with harrying fleet should harm the land.No her cuðlicor cuman ongunnon No aliens ever at ease thus bore them,lindhæbbende; ne ge leafnesword linden-wielders: yet word-of-leaveguðfremmendra gearwe ne wisson, clearly ye lack from clansmen here,maga gemedu. Næfre ic maran geseah my folk's agreement. -- A greater ne'er saw Ieorla ofer eorþan ðonne is eower sum, of warriors in world than is one of you, --secg on searwum; nis þæt seldguma, yon hero in harness! No henchman hewæpnum geweorðad, næfne/ him his wlite leoge, worthied by weapons, if witness his features,ænlic ansyn. Nu ic eower sceal his peerless presence! I pray you, though, tellfrumcyn witan, ær ge fyr heonan , your folk and home, lest hence ye fareleassceaweras, on land Dena suspect to wander your way as spiesfurþur feran. Nu ge feorbuend, in Danish land. Now, dwellers afar,mereliðende, minne/ gehyrað ocean-travellers, take from meanfealdne geþoht: Ofost is selest simple advice: the sooner the betterto gecyðanne hwanan eowre cyme syndon. I hear of the country whence ye came."Him se yldesta ondswarode, To him the stateliest spake in answer;werodes wisa, wordhord onleac: the warriors' leader his word-hoard unlocked:--We synt gumcynnes Geata leode "We are by kin of the clan of Geats,ond Higelaces heorðgeneatas. and Hygelac's own hearth-fellows we.Wæs min fæder folcum gecyþed, To folk afar was my father known,æþele ordfruma, Ecgþeow haten. noble atheling, Ecgtheow named.Gebad wintra worn, ær he on weg hwurfe, Full of winters, he fared awaygamol of geardum; hine gearwe geman aged from earth; he is honored stillwitena welhwylc wide geond eorþan. through width of the world by wise men all.We þurh holdne hige hlaford þinne, To thy lord and liege in loyal moodsunu Healfdenes, secean cwomon, we hasten hither, to Healfdene's son,leodgebyrgean; wes þu us larena god. people-protector: be pleased to advise us!Habbað we to þæm mæran micel ærende, To that mighty-one come we on mickle errand,Deniga frean, ne sceal þær dyrne sum to the lord of the Danes; nor deem I rightwesan, þæs ic wene. þu wast gif hit is that aught be hidden. We hear -- thou knowestswa we soþlice secgan hyrdon if sooth it is -- the saying of men,þæt mid Scyldingum sceaðona/ ic nat hwylc, that amid the Scyldings a scathing monster,deogol dædhata, deorcum nihtum dark ill-doer, in dusky nightseaweð þurh egsan uncuðne nið, shows terrific his rage unmatched,hynðu ond hrafyl. Ic þæs Hroðgar mæg hatred and murder. To Hrothgar Iþurh rumne sefan ræd gelæran, in greatness of soul would succor bring,hu he frod ond god feond oferswyðeþ, so the Wise-and-Brave may worst his foes, --gyf him edwendan æfre scolde if ever the end of ills is fated,bealuwa bisigu, bot eft cuman, of cruel contest, if cure shall follow,ond þa cearwylmas colran wurðaþ; and the boiling care-waves cooler grow;oððe a syþðan earfoðþrage, else ever afterward anguish-daysþreanyd þolað, þenden þær wunað he shall suffer in sorrow while stands in placeon heahstede husa selest. high on its hill that house unpeered!"Weard maþelode, ðær on wicge sæt, Astride his steed, the strand-ward answered,ombeht unforht: æghwæþres sceal clansman unquailing: "The keen-souled thanescearp scyldwiga gescad witan, must be skilled to sever and sunder dulyworda ond worca, se þe wel þenceð. words and works, if he well intends.Ic þæt gehyre, þæt þis is hold weorod I gather, this band is graciously bentfrean Scyldinga. Gewitaþ forð beran to the Scyldings' master. March, then, bearingwæpen ond gewædu; ic eow wisige. weapons and weeds the way I show you.Swylce ic maguþegnas mine hate I will bid my men your boat meanwhilewið feonda gehwone flotan eowerne, to guard for fear lest foemen come, --niwtyrwydne nacan on sande your new-tarred ship by shore of oceanarum healdan, oþðæt eft byreð faithfully watching till once againofer lagustreamas leofne mannan it waft o'er the waters those well-loved thanes,wudu wundenhals to Wedermearce, -- winding-neck'd wood, -- to Weders' bounds,godfremmendra swylcum gifeþe bið heroes such as the hest of fateþæt þone hilderæs hal gedigeð. shall succor and save from the shock of war."Gewiton him þa feran. Flota stille bad, They bent them to march, -- the boat lay still,seomode on sale/ sidfæþmed scip, fettered by cable and fast at anchor,on ancre fæst. Eoforlic scionon broad-bosomed ship. -- Then shone the boarsofer hleorberan gehroden golde, over the cheek-guard; chased with gold,fah ond fyrheard; ferhwearde heold keen and gleaming, guard it keptguþmod grimmon/. Guman onetton, o'er the man of war, as marched alongsigon ætsomne, oþþæt hy sæl/ timbred, heroes in haste, till the hall they saw,geatolic ond goldfah, ongyton mihton; broad of gable and bright with gold:þæt wæs foremærost foldbuendum that was the fairest, 'mid folk of earth,receda under roderum, on þæm se rica bad; of houses 'neath heaven, where Hrothgar lived,lixte se leoma ofer landa fela. and the gleam of it lightened o'er lands afar.Him þa hildedeor hof/ modigra The sturdy shieldsman showed that brighttorht getæhte, þæt hie him to mihton burg-of-the-boldest; bade them gogegnum gangan; guðbeorna sum straightway thither; his steed then turned,wicg gewende, word æfter cwæð: hardy hero, and hailed them thus:--Mæl is me to feran; fæder alwalda "Tis time that I fare from you. Father Almightymid arstafum eowic gehealde in grace and mercy guard you well,siða gesunde. Ic to sæ wille safe in your seekings. Seaward I go,wið wrað werod wearde healdan. 'gainst hostile warriors hold my watch."Stræt wæs stanfah, stig wisode STONE-BRIGHT the street: it showed the waygumum ætgædere. Guðbyrne scan to the crowd of clansmen. Corselets glistenedheard hondlocen, hringiren scir hand-forged, hard; on their harness brightsong in searwum, þa hie to sele furðum the steel ring sang, as they strode alongin hyra gryregeatwum gangan cwomon. in mail of battle, and marched to the hall.Setton sæmeþe side scyldas, There, weary of ocean, the wall alongrondas regnhearde, wið þæs recedes weal, they set their bucklers, their broad shields, down,bugon þa to bence. Byrnan hringdon, and bowed them to bench: the breastplates clanged,guðsearo gumena; garas stodon, war-gear of men; their weapons stacked,sæmanna searo, samod ætgædere, spears of the seafarers stood together,æscholt ufan græg; wæs se irenþreat gray-tipped ash: that iron bandwæpnum gewurþad. þa ðær wlonc hæleð was worthily weaponed! -- A warrior proudoretmecgas æfter æþelum frægn: asked of the heroes their home and kin.Hwanon ferigeað ge fætte scyldas, "Whence, now, bear ye burnished shields,græge syrcan ond grimhelmas, harness gray and helmets grim,heresceafta heap? Ic eom Hroðgares spears in multitude? Messenger, I,ar ond ombiht. Ne seah ic elþeodige Hrothgar's herald! Heroes so manyþus manige men modiglicran. ne'er met I as strangers of mood so strong.Wen ic þæt ge for wlenco, nalles for wræcsiðum, 'Tis plain that for prowess, not plunged into exile,ac for higeþrymmum/ Hroðgar sohton. for high-hearted valor, Hrothgar ye seek!"Him þa ellenrof andswarode, Him the sturdy-in-war bespake with words,wlanc Wedera leod, word æfter spræc, proud earl of the Weders answer made,heard under helme: We synt Higelaces hardy 'neath helmet:--"Hygelac's, we,beodgeneatas; Beowulf is min nama. fellows at board; I am Beowulf named.Wille ic asecgan sunu Healfdenes, I am seeking to say to the son of Healfdenemærum þeodne, min ærende, this mission of mine, to thy master-lord,aldre þinum, gif he us geunnan wile the doughty prince, if he deign at allþæt we hine swa godne gretan moton. grace that we greet him, the good one, now."Wulfgar maþelode þæt wæs Wendla leod; Wulfgar spake, the Wendles' chieftain,wæs his modsefa manegum gecyðed, whose might of mind to many was known,wig ond wisdom: Ic þæs wine Deniga, his courage and counsel: "The king of Danes,frean Scildinga, frinan wille, the Scyldings' friend, I fain will tell,beaga bryttan, swa þu bena eart, the Breaker-of-Rings, as the boon thou askest,þeoden mærne, ymb þinne sið, the famed prince, of thy faring hither,ond þe þa ondsware ædre gecyðan and, swiftly after, such answer bringðe me se goda agifan þenceð. as the doughty monarch may deign to give."Hwearf þa hrædlice þær Hroðgar sæt Hied then in haste to where Hrothgar sateald ond anhar/ mid his eorla gedriht; white-haired and old, his earls about him,eode ellenrof, þæt he for eaxlum gestod till the stout thane stood at the shoulder thereDeniga frean; cuþe he duguðe þeaw. of the Danish king: good courtier he!Wulfgar maðelode to his/ winedrihtne: Wulfgar spake to his winsome lord:--Her syndon geferede, feorran cumene "Hither have fared to thee far-come menofer geofenes begang Geata leode; o'er the paths of ocean, people of Geatland;þone yldestan oretmecgas and the stateliest there by his sturdy bandBeowulf nemnað. Hy benan synt is Beowulf named. This boon they seek,þæt hie, þeoden min, wið þe moton that they, my master, may with theewordum wrixlan. No ðu him wearne geteoh have speech at will: nor spurn their prayerðinra gegncwida, glædman Hroðgar. to give them hearing, gracious Hrothgar!Hy on wiggetawum wyrðe þinceað In weeds of the warrior worthy they,eorla geæhtlan; huru se aldor deah, methinks, of our liking; their leader most surely,se þæm heaðorincum hider wisade. a hero that hither his henchmen has led."Hroðgar maþelode, helm Scyldinga: HROTHGAR answered, helmet of Scyldings:--Ic hine cuðe cnihtwesende. "I knew him of yore in his youthful days;Wæs his ealdfæder Ecgþeo haten, his aged father was Ecgtheow named,ðæm to ham forgeaf Hreþel Geata to whom, at home, gave Hrethel the Geatangan dohtor; is his eafora/ nu his only daughter. Their offspring boldheard her cumen, sohte holdne wine. fares hither to seek the steadfast friend.ðonne sægdon þæt sæliþende, And seamen, too, have said me this, --þa ðe gifsceattas Geata fyredon who carried my gifts to the Geatish court,þyder to þance, þæt he XXXtiges thither for thanks, -- he has thirty men'smanna mægencræft on his mundgripe heft of grasp in the gripe of his hand,heaþorof hæbbe. Hine halig god the bold-in-battle. Blessed Godfor arstafum us onsende, out of his mercy this man hath sentto Westdenum, þæs ic wen hæbbe, to Danes of the West, as I ween indeed,wið Grendles gryre. Ic þæm/ godan sceal against horror of Grendel. I hope to givefor his modþræce madmas beodan. the good youth gold for his gallant thought.Beo ðu on ofeste, hat in gan Be thou in haste, and bid them hither,seon sibbegedriht samod ætgædere; clan of kinsmen, to come before me;gesaga him eac wordum þæt hie sint wilcuman and add this word, -- they are welcome guestsDeniga leodum. to folk of the Danes." [To the door of the hall[] word/ inne abead: Wulfgar went] and the word declared:--Eow het secgan sigedrihten min, "To you this message my master sends,aldor Eastdena, þæt he eower æþelu can, East-Danes' king, that your kin he knows,ond ge him syndon ofer sæwylmas hardy heroes, and hails you allheardhicgende hider wilcuman. welcome hither o'er waves of the sea!Nu ge moton gangan in eowrum guðgeatawum Ye may wend your way in war-attire,under heregriman Hroðgar geseon; and under helmets Hrothgar greet;lætað hildebord her onbidan, but let here the battle-shields bide your parley,wudu, wælsceaftas, worda geþinges. and wooden war-shafts wait its end."Aras þa se rica, ymb hine rinc manig, Uprose the mighty one, ringed with his men,þryðlic þegna heap; sume þær bidon, brave band of thanes: some bode without,heaðoreaf heoldon, swa him se hearda bebead. battle-gear guarding, as bade the chief.Snyredon ætsomne, þa secg wisode, Then hied that troop where the herald led them,under Heorotes hrof under Heorot's roof: [the hero strode,]heard/ under helme, þæt he on heoðe gestod. hardy 'neath helm, till the hearth he neared.Beowulf maðelode on him byrne scan, Beowulf spake, -- his breastplate gleamed,searonet/ seowed smiþes orþancum: war-net woven by wit of the smith:--Wæs þu, Hroðgar/, hal. Ic eom Higelaces "Thou Hrothgar, hail! Hygelac's I,mæg ond magoðegn; hæbbe ic mærða fela kinsman and follower. Fame a plentyongunnen on geogoþe. Me wearð Grendles þing have I gained in youth! These Grendel-deedson minre eþeltyrf undyrne cuð; I heard in my home-land heralded clear.secgað sæliðend þæt þæs sele stande, Seafarers say how stands this hall,reced selesta, rinca gehwylcum of buildings best, for your band of thanesidel ond unnyt, siððan æfenleoht empty and idle, when evening sununder heofenes hador beholen weorþeð. in the harbor of heaven is hidden away.þa me þæt gelærdon leode mine So my vassals advised me well, --þa selestan, snotere ceorlas, brave and wise, the best of men, --þeoden Hroðgar, þæt ic þe sohte, O sovran Hrothgar, to seek thee here,forþan hie mægenes cræft minne/ cuþon, for my nerve and my might they knew full well.selfe ofersawon, ða ic of searwum cwom, Themselves had seen me from slaughter comefah from feondum. þær ic fife geband, blood-flecked from foes, where five I bound,yðde eotena cyn ond on yðum slog and that wild brood worsted. I' the waves I slewniceras nihtes, nearoþearfe dreah, nicors by night, in need and perilwræc Wedera/ nið wean ahsodon, avenging the Weders, whose woe they sought, --forgrand gramum, ond nu wið Grendel sceal, crushing the grim ones. Grendel now,wið þam aglæcan, ana gehegan monster cruel, be mine to quellðing wið þyrse. Ic þe nu ða, in single battle! So, from thee,brego Beorhtdena, biddan wille, thou sovran of the Shining-Danes,eodor Scyldinga, anre bene, Scyldings'-bulwark, a boon I seek, --þæt ðu me ne forwyrne, wigendra hleo, and, Friend-of-the-folk, refuse it not,freowine folca, nu ic þus feorran com, O Warriors'-shield, now I've wandered far, --þæt ic mote ana ond/ minra eorla gedryht, that I alone with my liegemen here,þes hearda heap, Heorot fælsian. this hardy band, may Heorot purge!Hæbbe ic eac geahsod þæt se æglæca More I hear, that the monster dire,for his wonhydum wæpna ne recceð. in his wanton mood, of weapons recks not;Ic þæt þonne forhicge swa me Higelac sie, hence shall I scorn -- so Hygelac stay,min mondrihten, modes bliðe, king of my kindred, kind to me! --þæt ic sweord bere oþðe sidne scyld, brand or buckler to bear in the fight,geolorand to guþe, ac ic mid grape sceal gold-colored targe: but with gripe alonefon wið feonde ond ymb feorh sacan, must I front the fiend and fight for life,lað wið laþum; ðær gelyfan sceal foe against foe. Then faith be hisdryhtnes dome se þe hine deað nimeð. in the doom of the Lord whom death shall take.Wen ic þæt he wille, gif he wealdan mot, Fain, I ween, if the fight he win,in þæm guðsele Geotena leode in this hall of gold my Geatish bandetan unforhte, swa he oft dyde, will he fearless eat, -- as oft before, --mægen Hreðmanna. Na þu minne þearft my noblest thanes. Nor need'st thou thenhafalan hydan, ac he me habban wile to hide my head; for his shall I be,dreore/ fahne, gif mec deað nimeð. dyed in gore, if death must take me;Byreð blodig wæl, byrgean þenceð, and my blood-covered body he'll bear as prey,eteð angenga unmurnlice, ruthless devour it, the roamer-lonely,mearcað morhopu; no ðu ymb mines ne þearft with my life-blood redden his lair in the fen:lices feorme leng sorgian. no further for me need'st food prepare!Onsend Higelace, gif mec hild nime, To Hygelac send, if Hild should take me,beaduscruda betst, þæt mine breost wereð, best of war-weeds, warding my breast,hrægla selest; þæt is Hrædlan laf, armor excellent, heirloom of HrethelWelandes geweorc. Gæð a wyrd swa hio scel. and work of Wayland. Fares Wyrd as she must."Hroðgar maþelode, helm Scyldinga: HROTHGAR spake, the Scyldings'-helmet:--For/ gewyrhtum/ þu, wine min Beowulf, "For fight defensive, Friend my Beowulf,ond for arstafum usic sohtest. to succor and save, thou hast sought us here.Gesloh þin fæder fæhðe mæste; Thy father's combat a feud enkindledwearþ he Heaþolafe to handbonan when Heatholaf with hand he slewmid Wilfingum; ða hine Wedera/ cyn among the Wylfings; his Weder kinfor herebrogan habban ne mihte. for horror of fighting feared to hold him.þanon he gesohte Suðdena folc Fleeing, he sought our South-Dane folk,ofer yða gewealc, Arscyldinga. over surge of ocean the Honor-Scyldings,ða ic furþum weold folce Deniga/ when first I was ruling the folk of Danes,ond on geogoðe heold ginne/ rice, wielded, youthful, this widespread realm,hordburh hæleþa; ða wæs Heregar dead, this hoard-hold of heroes. Heorogar was dead,min yldra mæg unlifigende, my elder brother, had breathed his last,bearn Healfdenes; se wæs betera ðonne ic. Healfdene's bairn: he was better than I!Siððan þa fæhðe feo þingode; Straightway the feud with fee I settled,sende ic Wylfingum ofer wæteres hrycg to the Wylfings sent, o'er watery ridges,ealde madmas; he me aþas swor. treasures olden: oaths he swore me.Sorh is me to secganne on sefan minum Sore is my soul to say to anygumena ængum hwæt me Grendel hafað of the race of man what ruth for mehynðo on Heorote mid his heteþancum, in Heorot Grendel with hate hath wrought,færniða gefremed. Is min fletwerod, what sudden harryings. Hall-folk fail me,wigheap gewanod; hie wyrd forsweop my warriors wane; for Wyrd hath swept themon Grendles gryre. God eaþe mæg into Grendel's grasp. But God is ableþone dolsceaðan dæda getwæfan. this deadly foe from his deeds to turn!Ful oft gebeotedon beore druncne Boasted full oft, as my beer they drank,ofer ealowæge oretmecgas earls o'er the ale-cup, armed men,þæt hie in beorsele bidan woldon that they would bide in the beer-hall here,Grendles guþe mid gryrum ecga. Grendel's attack with terror of blades.ðonne wæs þeos medoheal on morgentid, Then was this mead-house at morning tidedrihtsele dreorfah, þonne dæg lixte, dyed with gore, when the daylight broke,eal bencþelu blode bestymed, all the boards of the benches blood-besprinkled,heall heorudreore/; ahte ic holdra þy læs, gory the hall: I had heroes the less,deorre duguðe, þe þa deað fornam. doughty dear-ones that death had reft.Site nu to symle ond onsæl meoto, -- But sit to the banquet, unbind thy words,sigehreð secgum, swa þin sefa hwette. hardy hero, as heart shall prompt thee."þa wæs Geatmæcgum geador ætsomne Gathered together, the Geatish menon beorsele benc gerymed; in the banquet-hall on bench assigned,þær swiðferhþe sittan eodon, sturdy-spirited, sat them down,þryðum dealle. þegn nytte beheold, hardy-hearted. A henchman attended,se þe on handa bær hroden ealowæge, carried the carven cup in hand,scencte scir wered. Scop hwilum sang served the clear mead. Oft minstrels sanghador on Heorote. þær wæs hæleða dream, blithe in Heorot. Heroes revelled,duguð unlytel Dena ond Wedera. no dearth of warriors, Weder and Dane.Unferð/ maþelode, Ecglafes bearn, UNFERTH spake, the son of Ecglaf,þe æt fotum sæt frean Scyldinga, who sat at the feet of the Scyldings' lord,onband beadurune wæs him Beowulfes sið, unbound the battle-runes. -- Beowulf's quest,modges merefaran, micel æfþunca, sturdy seafarer's, sorely galled him;forþon þe he ne uþe þæt ænig oðer man/ ever he envied that other menæfre mærða þon ma middangeardes should more achieve in middle-earthgehedde under heofenum þonne he sylfa: of fame under heaven than he himself. --Eart þu se Beowulf, se þe wið Brecan wunne, "Art thou that Beowulf, Breca's rival,on sidne sæ ymb sund flite, who emulous swam on the open sea,ðær git for wlence wada cunnedon when for pride the pair of you proved the floods,ond for dolgilpe on deop wæter and wantonly dared in waters deepaldrum neþdon? Ne inc ænig mon, to risk your lives? No living man,ne leof ne lað, belean mihte or lief or loath, from your labor diresorhfullne sið, þa git on sund reon. could you dissuade, from swimming the main.þær git eagorstream earmum þehton, Ocean-tides with your arms ye covered,mæton merestræta, mundum brugdon, with strenuous hands the sea-streets measured,glidon ofer garsecg; geofon yþum weol, swam o'er the waters. Winter's stormwintrys wylmum/. Git on wæteres æht rolled the rough waves. In realm of seaseofon niht swuncon; he þe æt sunde oferflat, a sennight strove ye. In swimming he topped thee,hæfde mare mægen. þa hine on morgentid had more of main! Him at morning-tideon Heaþoræmas/ holm up ætbær; billows bore to the Battling Reamas,ðonon he gesohte swæsne //eþel//, whence he hied to his home so dearleof his leodum, lond Brondinga, beloved of his liegemen, to land of Brondings,freoðoburh fægere, þær he folc ahte fastness fair, where his folk he ruled,burh ond beagas. Beot eal wið þe town and treasure. In triumph o'er theesunu Beanstanes soðe/ gelæste. Beanstan's bairn his boast achieved.ðonne wene ic to þe wyrsan geþingea, So ween I for thee a worse adventureðeah þu heaðoræsa gehwær dohte, -- though in buffet of battle thou brave hast been,grimre guðe, gif þu Grendles dearst in struggle grim, -- if Grendel's approachnihtlongne fyrst nean bidan. thou darst await through the watch of night!"Beowulf maþelode, bearn Ecgþeowes: Beowulf spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:--Hwæt. þu worn fela, wine min Unferð/, "What a deal hast uttered, dear my Unferth,beore druncen ymb Brecan spræce, drunken with beer, of Breca now,sægdest from his siðe. Soð ic talige, told of his triumph! Truth I claim it,þæt ic merestrengo maran ahte, that I had more of might in the seaearfeþo on yþum, ðonne ænig oþer man. than any man else, more ocean-endurance.Wit þæt gecwædon cnihtwesende We twain had talked, in time of youth,ond gebeotedon wæron begen þa git and made our boast, -- we were merely boys,on geogoðfeore þæt wit on garsecg ut striplings still, -- to stake our livesaldrum neðdon, ond þæt geæfndon swa. far at sea: and so we performed it.Hæfdon swurd nacod, þa wit on sund reon, Naked swords, as we swam along,heard on handa; wit unc wið hronfixas we held in hand, with hope to guard uswerian þohton. No he wiht fram me against the whales. Not a whit from meflodyþum feor fleotan meahte, could he float afar o'er the flood of waves,hraþor on holme; no ic fram him wolde. haste o'er the billows; nor him I abandoned.ða wit ætsomne on sæ wæron Together we twain on the tides abodefif nihta fyrst, oþþæt unc flod todraf, five nights full till the flood divided us,wado weallende, wedera cealdost, churning waves and chillest weather,nipende niht, ond norþanwind darkling night, and the northern windheaðogrim ondhwearf; hreo wæron yþa. ruthless rushed on us: rough was the surge.Wæs merefixa mod onhrered; Now the wrath of the sea-fish rose apace;þær me wið laðum licsyrce min, yet me 'gainst the monsters my mailed coat,heard, hondlocen, helpe gefremede, hard and hand-linked, help afforded, --beadohrægl broden on breostum læg battle-sark braided my breast to ward,golde gegyrwed. Me to grunde teah garnished with gold. There grasped me firmfah feondscaða, fæste hæfde and haled me to bottom the hated foe,grim on grape; hwæþre me gyfeþe wearð with grimmest gripe. 'Twas granted me, though,þæt ic aglæcan orde geræhte, to pierce the monster with point of sword,hildebille; heaþoræs fornam with blade of battle: huge beast of the seamihtig meredeor þurh mine hand. was whelmed by the hurly through hand of mine.Swa mec gelome laðgeteonan ME thus often the evil monstersþreatedon þearle. Ic him þenode thronging threatened. With thrust of my sword,deoran sweorde, swa hit gedefe wæs. the darling, I dealt them due return!Næs hie ðære fylle gefean hæfdon, Nowise had they bliss from their booty thenmanfordædlan, þæt hie me þegon, to devour their victim, vengeful creatures,symbel ymbsæton sægrunde neah; seated to banquet at bottom of sea;ac on mergenne mecum wunde but at break of day, by my brand sore hurt,be yðlafe uppe lægon, on the edge of ocean up they lay,sweordum/ aswefede, þæt syðþan na put to sleep by the sword. And since, by themymb brontne ford brimliðende on the fathomless sea-ways sailor-folklade ne letton. Leoht eastan com, are never molested. -- Light from east,beorht beacen godes; brimu swaþredon, came bright God's beacon; the billows sank,þæt ic sænæssas geseon mihte, so that I saw the sea-cliffs high,windige weallas. Wyrd oft nereð windy walls. For Wyrd oft savethunfægne eorl, þonne his ellen deah. earl undoomed if he doughty be!Hwæþere me gesælde þæt ic mid sweorde ofsloh And so it came that I killed with my swordniceras nigene. No ic on niht gefrægn nine of the nicors. Of night-fought battlesunder heofones hwealf heardran feohtan, ne'er heard I a harder 'neath heaven's dome,ne on egstreamum earmran mannon; nor adrift on the deep a more desolate man!hwaþere ic fara feng feore gedigde, Yet I came unharmed from that hostile clutch,siþes werig. ða mec sæ oþbær, though spent with swimming. The sea upbore me,flod æfter faroðe on Finna land, flood of the tide, on Finnish land,wadu/ weallendu. No ic wiht fram þe the welling waters. No wise of theeswylcra searoniða secgan hyrde, have I heard men tell such terror of falchions,billa brogan. Breca næfre git bitter battle. Breca ne'er yet,æt heaðolace, ne gehwæþer incer, not one of you pair, in the play of warswa deorlice dæd gefremede such daring deed has done at allfagum sweordum no ic þæs fela/ gylpe, with bloody brand, -- I boast not of it! --þeah ðu þinum broðrum to banan wurde, though thou wast the bane of thy brethren dear,heafodmægum; þæs þu in helle scealt thy closest kin, whence curse of hellwerhðo dreogan, þeah þin wit/ duge/. awaits thee, well as thy wit may serve!Secge ic þe to soðe, sunu Ecglafes/, For I say in sooth, thou son of Ecglaf,þæt næfre Grendel/ swa fela gryra gefremede, never had Grendel these grim deeds wrought,atol æglæca, ealdre þinum, monster dire, on thy master dear,hynðo on Heorote, gif þin hige wære, in Heorot such havoc, if heart of thinesefa swa searogrim, swa þu self talast. were as battle-bold as thy boast is loud!Ac he hafað onfunden þæt he þa fæhðe ne þearf, But he has found no feud will happen;atole ecgþræce eower leode from sword-clash dread of your Danish clanswiðe onsittan, Sigescyldinga; he vaunts him safe, from the Victor-Scyldings.nymeð nydbade, nænegum arað He forces pledges, favors noneleode Deniga, ac he lust wigeð, of the land of Danes, but lustily murders,swefeð ond sendeþ, secce ne weneþ fights and feasts, nor feud he dreadsto Gardenum. Ac ic him Geata sceal from Spear-Dane men. But speedily noweafoð ond ellen ungeara nu, shall I prove him the prowess and pride of the Geats,guþe gebeodan. Gæþ eft se þe mot shall bid him battle. Blithe to meadto medo modig, siþþan morgenleoht go he that listeth, when light of dawnofer ylda bearn oþres dogores, this morrow morning o'er men of earth,sunne sweglwered suþan scineð. ether-robed sun from the south shall beam!"þa wæs on salum sinces brytta, Joyous then was the Jewel-giver,gamolfeax ond guðrof; geoce gelyfde hoar-haired, war-brave; help awaitedbrego Beorhtdena, gehyrde on Beowulfe the Bright-Danes' prince, from Beowulf hearing,folces hyrde fæstrædne geþoht. folk's good shepherd, such firm resolve.ðær wæs hæleþa hleahtor/, hlyn swynsode, Then was laughter of liegemen loud resoundingword wæron wynsume. Eode Wealhþeow forð, with winsome words. Came Wealhtheow forth,cwen Hroðgares, cynna gemyndig, queen of Hrothgar, heedful of courtesy,grette goldhroden guman on healle, gold-decked, greeting the guests in hall;ond þa freolic wif ful gesealde and the high-born lady handed the cupærest Eastdena eþelwearde, first to the East-Danes' heir and warden,bæd hine bliðne æt þære beorþege, bade him be blithe at the beer-carouse,leodum leofne. He on lust geþeah the land's beloved one. Lustily took hesymbel ond seleful, sigerof kyning. banquet and beaker, battle-famed king.Ymbeode þa ides Helminga Through the hall then went the Helmings' Lady,duguþe ond geogoþe dæl æghwylcne, to younger and older everywheresincfato sealde, oþþæt sæl alamp carried the cup, till come the momentþæt hio Beowulfe, beaghroden cwen when the ring-graced queen, the royal-hearted,mode geþungen, medoful ætbær; to Beowulf bore the beaker of mead.grette Geata leod, gode þancode She greeted the Geats' lord, God she thanked,wisfæst wordum þæs ðe hire se willa gelamp in wisdom's words, that her will was granted,þæt heo on ænigne eorl gelyfde that at last on a hero her hope could leanfyrena frofre. He þæt ful geþeah, for comfort in terrors. The cup he took,wælreow wiga, æt Wealhþeon, hardy-in-war, from Wealhtheow's hand,ond þa gyddode guþe gefysed; and answer uttered the eager-for-combat.Beowulf maþelode, bearn Ecgþeowes: Beowulf spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:--Ic þæt hogode, þa ic on holm gestah, "This was my thought, when my thanes and Isæbat gesæt mid minre secga gedriht, bent to the ocean and entered our boat,þæt ic anunga eowra leoda that I would work the will of your peoplewillan geworhte oþðe on wæl crunge, fully, or fighting fall in death,feondgrapum fæst. Ic gefremman sceal in fiend's gripe fast. I am firm to doeorlic ellen, oþðe endedæg an earl's brave deed, or end the dayson þisse meoduhealle minne gebidan. of this life of mine in the mead-hall here."ðam wife þa word wel licodon, Well these words to the woman seemed,gilpcwide Geates; eode goldhroden Beowulf's battle-boast. -- Bright with goldfreolicu folccwen to hire frean/ sittan. the stately dame by her spouse sat down.þa wæs eft swa ær inne on healle Again, as erst, began in hallþryðword sprecen, ðeod on sælum, warriors' wassail and words of power,sigefolca sweg, oþþæt semninga the proud-band's revel, till presentlysunu Healfdenes secean wolde the son of Healfdene hastened to seekæfenræste; wiste þæm ahlæcan rest for the night; he knew there waitedto þæm heahsele hilde geþinged, fight for the fiend in that festal hall,siððan hie sunnan leoht geseon ne/ meahton, when the sheen of the sun they saw no more,oðþe nipende niht ofer ealle, and dusk of night sank darkling nigh,scaduhelma gesceapu scriðan cwoman, and shadowy shapes came striding on,wan under wolcnum. Werod eall aras. wan under welkin. The warriors rose.Gegrette/ þa guma oþerne, Man to man, he made harangue,Hroðgar Beowulf, ond him hæl abead, Hrothgar to Beowulf, bade him hail,winærnes geweald, ond þæt word acwæð: let him wield the wine hall: a word he added:--Næfre ic ænegum men ær alyfde, "Never to any man erst I trusted,siþðan ic hond ond rond hebban mihte, since I could heave up hand and shield,ðryþærn Dena buton þe nu ða. this noble Dane-Hall, till now to thee.Hafa nu ond geheald husa selest, Have now and hold this house unpeered;gemyne mærþo, mægenellen cyð, remember thy glory; thy might declare;waca wið wraþum. Ne bið þe wilna gad, watch for the foe! No wish shall fail theegif þu þæt ellenweorc aldre gedigest. if thou bidest the battle with bold-won life."ða him Hroþgar gewat mid his hæleþa gedryht, THEN Hrothgar went with his hero-train,eodur Scyldinga, ut of healle; defence-of-Scyldings, forth from hall;wolde wigfruma Wealhþeo secan, fain would the war-lord Wealhtheow seek,cwen to gebeddan. Hæfde kyningwuldor couch of his queen. The King-of-GloryGrendle togeanes, swa guman gefrungon, against this Grendel a guard had set,seleweard aseted; sundornytte beheold so heroes heard, a hall-defender,ymb aldor Dena, eotonweard abead. who warded the monarch and watched for the monster.Huru Geata leod georne truwode In truth, the Geats' prince gladly trustedmodgan mægnes, metodes hyldo. his mettle, his might, the mercy of God!ða he him of dyde isernbyrnan, Cast off then his corselet of iron,helm of hafelan, sealde his hyrsted sweord, helmet from head; to his henchman gave, --irena cyst, ombihtþegne, choicest of weapons, -- the well-chased sword,ond gehealdan het hildegeatwe. bidding him guard the gear of battle.Gespræc þa se goda gylpworda sum, Spake then his Vaunt the valiant man,Beowulf Geata, ær he on bed stige: Beowulf Geat, ere the bed be sought:--No ic me an herewæsmun hnagran talige, "Of force in fight no feebler I count me,guþgeweorca, þonne Grendel hine; in grim war-deeds, than Grendel deems him.forþan ic hine sweorde swebban nelle, Not with the sword, then, to sleep of deathaldre beneotan, þeah ic eal mæge. his life will I give, though it lie in my power.Nat he þara goda þæt he me ongean slea, No skill is his to strike against me,rand geheawe, þeah ðe he rof sie my shield to hew though he hardy be,niþgeweorca; ac wit on niht sculon bold in battle; we both, this night,secge ofersittan, gif he/ gesecean dear shall spurn the sword, if he seek me here,wig ofer wæpen, ond siþðan witig god unweaponed, for war. Let wisest God,on swa hwæþere hond, halig dryhten, sacred Lord, on which side soevermærðo deme, swa him gemet þince. doom decree as he deemeth right."Hylde hine þa heaþodeor, hleorbolster onfeng Reclined then the chieftain, and cheek-pillows heldeorles andwlitan, ond hine ymb monig the head of the earl, while all about himsnellic særinc selereste gebeah. seamen hardy on hall-beds sank.Nænig heora þohte þæt he þanon scolde None of them thought that thence their stepseft eardlufan æfre gesecean, to the folk and fastness that fostered them,folc oþðe freoburh, þær he afeded wæs; to the land they loved, would lead them back!ac hie hæfdon gefrunen þæt hie ær to fela micles Full well they wist that on warriors manyin þæm winsele wældeað fornam, battle-death seized, in the banquet-hall,Denigea leode. Ac him dryhten forgeaf of Danish clan. But comfort and help,wigspeda gewiofu, Wedera leodum, war-weal weaving, to Weder folkfrofor ond fultum/, þæt/ hie/ feond heora the Master gave, that, by might of one,ðurh anes cræft ealle ofercomon, over their enemy all prevailed,selfes mihtum. Soð is gecyþed by single strength. In sooth 'tis toldþæt mihtig god manna cynnes that highest God o'er human kindweold wideferhð/. Com on wanre niht hath wielded ever! -- Thro' wan night striding,scriðan sceadugenga. Sceotend swæfon, came the walker-in-shadow. Warriors sleptþa þæt hornreced healdan scoldon, whose hest was to guard the gabled hall, --ealle buton anum. þæt wæs yldum cuþ all save one. 'Twas widely knownþæt hie ne moste, þa metod nolde, that against God's will the ghostly ravagerse scynscaþa/ under sceadu bregdan; him could not hurl to haunts of darkness;ac he wæccende wraþum on andan wakeful, ready, with warrior's wrath,bad bolgenmod beadwa geþinges. bold he bided the battle's issue.ða com of more under misthleoþum THEN from the moorland, by misty crags,Grendel gongan, godes yrre bær; with God's wrath laden, Grendel came.mynte se manscaða manna cynnes The monster was minded of mankind nowsumne besyrwan/ in sele þam hean. sundry to seize in the stately house.Wod under wolcnum/ to þæs þe he winreced, Under welkin he walked, till the wine-palace there,goldsele gumena, gearwost wisse, gold-hall of men, he gladly discerned,fættum fahne. Ne wæs þæt forma sið flashing with fretwork. Not first time, this,þæt he Hroþgares ham gesohte; that he the home of Hrothgar sought, --næfre he on aldordagum ær ne/ siþðan yet ne'er in his life-day, late or early,heardran hæle, healðegnas fand. such hardy heroes, such hall-thanes, found!Com þa to recede rinc siðian, To the house the warrior walked apace,dreamum bedæled. Duru sona onarn/, parted from peace; the portal opended,fyrbendum fæst, syþðan he hire folmum æthran/; though with forged bolts fast, when his fists had struck it,onbræd þa bealohydig, ða he/ gebolgen/ wæs, and baleful he burst in his blatant rage,recedes muþan. Raþe æfter þon the house's mouth. All hastily, then,on fagne flor feond treddode, o'er fair-paved floor the fiend trod on,eode yrremod; him of eagum stod ireful he strode; there streamed from his eyesligge gelicost leoht unfæger. fearful flashes, like flame to see.Geseah he in recede rinca manige, He spied in hall the hero-band,swefan sibbegedriht samod ætgædere, kin and clansmen clustered asleep,magorinca heap. þa his mod ahlog; hardy liegemen. Then laughed his heart;mynte þæt he gedælde, ærþon dæg cwome, for the monster was minded, ere morn should dawn,atol aglæca, anra gehwylces savage, to sever the soul of each,lif wið lice, þa him alumpen wæs life from body, since lusty banquetwistfylle wen. Ne wæs þæt/ wyrd þa gen waited his will! But Wyrd forbade himþæt he ma moste manna cynnes to seize any more of men on earthðicgean ofer þa niht. þryðswyð beheold after that evening. Eagerly watchedmæg Higelaces, hu se manscaða Hygelac's kinsman his cursed foe,under færgripum gefaran wolde. how he would fare in fell attack.Ne þæt se aglæca yldan þohte, Not that the monster was minded to pause!ac he gefeng hraðe forman siðe Straightway he seized a sleeping warriorslæpendne rinc, slat unwearnum, for the first, and tore him fiercely asunder,bat banlocan, blod edrum dranc, the bone-frame bit, drank blood in streams,synsnædum swealh; sona hæfde swallowed him piecemeal: swiftly thusunlyfigendes eal gefeormod, the lifeless corse was clear devoured,fet ond folma. Forð near ætstop, e'en feet and hands. Then farther he hied;nam þa mid handa higeþihtigne for the hardy hero with hand he grasped,rinc on ræste, ræhte ongean felt for the foe with fiendish claw,feond mid folme; he onfeng hraþe for the hero reclining, -- who clutched it boldly,inwitþancum ond wið earm gesæt. prompt to answer, propped on his arm.Sona þæt onfunde fyrena hyrde Soon then saw that shepherd-of-evilsþæt he ne mette middangeardes, that never he met in this middle-world,eorþan sceata/, on elran men in the ways of earth, another wightmundgripe maran. He on mode wearð with heavier hand-gripe; at heart he feared,forht on ferhðe; no þy ær fram meahte. sorrowed in soul, -- none the sooner escaped!Hyge wæs him hinfus, wolde on heolster fleon, Fain would he flee, his fastness seek,secan deofla gedræg; ne wæs his drohtoð þær the den of devils: no doings nowswylce he on ealderdagum ær gemette. such as oft he had done in days of old!Gemunde þa se goda, mæg Higelaces, Then bethought him the hardy Hygelac-thaneæfenspræce, uplang astod of his boast at evening: up he bounded,ond him fæste wiðfeng; fingras burston. grasped firm his foe, whose fingers cracked.Eoten wæs utweard; eorl furþur stop. The fiend made off, but the earl close followed.Mynte se mæra, þær/ he meahte swa, The monster meant -- if he might at all --widre gewindan ond on weg þanon to fling himself free, and far awayfleon on fenhopu; wiste his/ fingra geweald fly to the fens, -- knew his fingers' poweron grames grapum. þæt/ wæs geocor sið in the gripe of the grim one. Gruesome marchþæt se hearmscaþa to Heorute ateah. to Heorot this monster of harm had made!Dryhtsele dynede; Denum eallum wearð, Din filled the room; the Danes were bereft,ceasterbuendum, cenra gehwylcum, castle-dwellers and clansmen all,eorlum ealuscerwen. Yrre wæron begen, earls, of their ale. Angry were bothreþe renweardas. Reced hlynsode. those savage hall-guards: the house resounded.þa wæs wundor micel þæt se winsele Wonder it was the wine-hall firmwiðhæfde heaþodeorum, þæt he on hrusan ne feol, in the strain of their struggle stood, to earthfæger foldbold; ac he þæs fæste wæs the fair house fell not; too fast it wasinnan ond utan irenbendum within and without by its iron bandssearoþoncum besmiþod. þær fram sylle abeag craftily clamped; though there crashed from sillmedubenc monig, mine gefræge, many a mead-bench -- men have told me --golde geregnad, þær þa graman wunnon. gay with gold, where the grim foes wrestled.þæs ne wendon ær witan Scyldinga So well had weened the wisest Scyldingsþæt hit a mid gemete manna ænig, that not ever at all might any manbetlic/ ond banfag, tobrecan meahte, that bone-decked, brave house break asunder,listum tolucan, nymþe liges fæþm crush by craft, -- unless clasp of fireswulge on swaþule. Sweg up astag in smoke engulfed it. -- Again uproseniwe geneahhe; Norðdenum stod din redoubled. Danes of the Northatelic egesa, anra gehwylcum with fear and frenzy were filled, each one,þara þe of wealle wop gehyrdon, who from the wall that wailing heard,gryreleoð galan godes ondsacan, God's foe sounding his grisly song,sigeleasne sang, sar wanigean cry of the conquered, clamorous painhelle hæfton. Heold hine fæste from captive of hell. Too closely held himse þe manna wæs mægene strengest he who of men in might was strongeston þæm dæge þysses lifes. in that same day of this our life.Nolde eorla hleo ænige þinga NOT in any wise would the earls'-defenceþone cwealmcuman cwicne forlætan, suffer that slaughterous stranger to live,ne his lifdagas leoda ænigum/ useless deeming his days and yearsnytte tealde. þær genehost brægd to men on earth. Now many an earleorl Beowulfes ealde lafe, of Beowulf brandished blade ancestral,wolde freadrihtnes feorh ealgian, fain the life of their lord to shield,mæres þeodnes, ðær hie meahton swa. their praised prince, if power were theirs;Hie þæt ne wiston, þa hie gewin drugon, never they knew, -- as they neared the foe,heardhicgende hildemecgas, hardy-hearted heroes of war,ond on healfa gehwone heawan þohton, aiming their swords on every sidesawle secan, þone synscaðan the accursed to kill, -- no keenest blade,ænig ofer eorþan irenna cyst, no farest of falchions fashioned on earth,guðbilla nan, gretan nolde, could harm or hurt that hideous fiend!ac he sigewæpnum forsworen hæfde, He was safe, by his spells, from sword of battle,ecga gehwylcre. Scolde his aldorgedal from edge of iron. Yet his end and partingon ðæm dæge þysses lifes on that same day of this our lifeearmlic wurðan, ond se ellorgast woful should be, and his wandering soulon feonda geweald feor siðian. far off flit to the fiends' domain.ða þæt onfunde se þe fela æror Soon he found, who in former days,modes myrðe manna cynne, harmful in heart and hated of God,fyrene gefremede he wæs/ fag wið god, on many a man such murder wrought,þæt him se lichoma læstan nolde/, that the frame of his body failed him hine se modega mæg Hygelaces For him the keen-souled kinsman of Hygelachæfde be honda; wæs gehwæþer oðrum held in hand; hateful alivelifigende lað. Licsar gebad was each to other. The outlaw direatol æglæca; him on eaxle wearð took mortal hurt; a mighty woundsyndolh sweotol, seonowe onsprungon, showed on his shoulder, and sinews cracked,burston banlocan. Beowulfe wearð and the bone-frame burst. To Beowulf nowguðhreð gyfeþe; scolde Grendel þonan the glory was given, and Grendel thencefeorhseoc fleon under fenhleoðu, death-sick his den in the dark moor sought,secean wynleas wic; wiste þe geornor noisome abode: he knew too wellþæt his aldres wæs ende gegongen, that here was the last of life, an enddogera dægrim. Denum eallum wearð of his days on earth. -- To all the Danesæfter þam wælræse willa gelumpen. by that bloody battle the boon had come.Hæfde þa gefælsod se þe ær feorran com, From ravage had rescued the roving strangersnotor ond swyðferhð, sele Hroðgares, Hrothgar's hall; the hardy and wise onegenered wið niðe; nihtweorce gefeh, had purged it anew. His night-work pleased him,ellenmærþum/. Hæfde Eastdenum his deed and its honor. To Eastern DanesGeatmecga leod gilp gelæsted, had the valiant Geat his vaunt made good,swylce oncyþðe ealle gebette, all their sorrow and ills assuaged,inwidsorge, þe hie ær drugon their bale of battle borne so long,ond for þreanydum þolian scoldon, and all the dole they erst enduredtorn unlytel. þæt wæs tacen sweotol, pain a-plenty. -- 'Twas proof of this,syþðan hildedeor hond alegde, when the hardy-in-fight a hand laid down,earm ond eaxle þær wæs eal geador arm and shoulder, -- all, indeed,Grendles grape under geapne hrof/. of Grendel's gripe, -- 'neath the gabled roofða wæs on morgen mine gefræge MANY at morning, as men have told me,ymb þa gifhealle guðrinc monig; warriors gathered the gift-hall round,ferdon folctogan feorran ond nean folk-leaders faring from far and near,geond widwegas wundor sceawian, o'er wide-stretched ways, the wonder to view,laþes lastas. No his lifgedal trace of the traitor. Not troublous seemedsarlic þuhte secga ænegum the enemy's end to any manþara þe tirleases trode sceawode, who saw by the gait of the graceless foehu he werigmod on weg þanon, how the weary-hearted, away from thence,niða ofercumen, on nicera mere baffled in battle and banned, his stepsfæge ond geflymed feorhlastas bær. death-marked dragged to the devils' mere.ðær wæs on blode brim weallende, Bloody the billows were boiling there,atol yða geswing eal gemenged turbid the tide of tumbling waveshaton heolfre, heorodreore weol. horribly seething, with sword-blood hot,Deaðfæge deog, siððan dreama leas by that doomed one dyed, who in den of the moorin fenfreoðo feorh alegde, laid forlorn his life adown,hæþene/ sawle; þær him hel onfeng. his heathen soul,-and hell received it.þanon eft gewiton ealdgesiðas, Home then rode the hoary clansmenswylce geong manig of gomenwaþe from that merry journey, and many a youth,fram mere modge mearum ridan, on horses white, the hardy warriors,beornas on blancum. ðær wæs Beowulfes back from the mere. Then Beowulf's glorymærðo mæned; monig oft gecwæð eager they echoed, and all averredþætte suð ne norð be sæm tweonum that from sea to sea, or south or north,ofer eormengrund oþer nænig there was no other in earth's domain,under swegles begong selra nære under vault of heaven, more valiant found,rondhæbbendra, rices wyrðra. of warriors none more worthy to rule!Ne hie huru winedrihten wiht ne logon, (On their lord beloved they laid no slight,glædne Hroðgar, ac þæt wæs god cyning. gracious Hrothgar: a good king he!)Hwilum heaþorofe hleapan leton, From time to time, the tried-in-battleon geflit faran fealwe mearas their gray steeds set to gallop amain,ðær him foldwegas fægere þuhton, and ran a race when the road seemed fair.cystum cuðe/. Hwilum cyninges þegn, From time to time, a thane of the king,guma gilphlæden, gidda gemyndig, who had made many vaunts, and was mindful of verses,se ðe ealfela ealdgesegena stored with sagas and songs of old,worn gemunde, word oþer fand bound word to word in well-knit rime,soðe gebunden; secg eft ongan welded his lay; this warrior soonsið Beowulfes snyttrum styrian of Beowulf's quest right cleverly sang,ond on sped wrecan spel gerade, and artfully added an excellent tale,wordum wrixlan. Welhwylc gecwæð in well-ranged words, of the warlike deedsþæt he fram Sigemundes/ secgan hyrde he had heard in saga of Sigemund.ellendædum, uncuþes fela, Strange the story: he said it all, --Wælsinges gewin, wide siðas, the Waelsing's wanderings wide, his struggles,þara þe gumena bearn gearwe ne wiston, which never were told to tribes of men,fæhðe ond fyrena, buton Fitela mid hine, the feuds and the frauds, save to Fitela only,þonne he swulces hwæt secgan wolde, when of these doings he deigned to speak,eam his nefan, swa hie a wæron uncle to nephew; as ever the twainæt niða gehwam nydgesteallan; stood side by side in stress of war,hæfdon ealfela eotena cynnes and multitude of the monster kindsweordum gesæged. Sigemunde gesprong they had felled with their swords. Of Sigemund grew,æfter deaðdæge dom unlytel, when he passed from life, no little praise;syþðan wiges heard wyrm acwealde, for the doughty-in-combat a dragon killedhordes hyrde. He under harne stan, that herded the hoard: under hoary rockæþelinges bearn, ana geneðde the atheling dared the deed alonefrecne dæde, ne wæs him Fitela mid. fearful quest, nor was Fitela there.hwæþre him gesælde ðæt þæt swurd þurhwod Yet so it befell, his falchion piercedwrætlicne wyrm, þæt hit on wealle ætstod, that wondrous worm, -- on the wall it struck,dryhtlic iren; draca morðre swealt. best blade; the dragon died in its blood.Hæfde aglæca elne gegongen Thus had the dread-one by daring achievedþæt he beahhordes brucan moste over the ring-hoard to rule at will,selfes dome; sæbat gehleod, himself to pleasure; a sea-boat he loaded,bær on bearm scipes beorhte frætwa, and bore on its bosom the beaming gold,Wælses eafera. Wyrm hat gemealt. son of Waels; the worm was consumed.Se wæs wreccena wide mærost He had of all heroes the highest renownofer werþeode, wigendra hleo, among races of men, this refuge-of-warriors,ellendædum he þæs ær onðah, for deeds of daring that decked his namesiððan Heremodes hild sweðrode, since the hand and heart of Heremodeafoð/ ond ellen. He mid Eotenum wearð grew slack in battle. He, swiftly banishedon feonda geweald forð forlacen, to mingle with monsters at mercy of foes,snude forsended. Hine sorhwylmas to death was betrayed; for torrents of sorrowlemede to lange; he his leodum wearð, had lamed him too long; a load of careeallum æþellingum to aldorceare; to earls and athelings all he proved.swylce oft bemearn ærran mælum Oft indeed, in earlier days,swiðferhþes sið snotor ceorl monig, for the warrior's wayfaring wise men mourned,se þe him bealwa to bote gelyfde, who had hoped of him help from harm and bale,þæt þæt ðeodnes bearn geþeon scolde, and had thought their sovran's son would thrive,fæderæþelum onfon, folc gehealdan, follow his father, his folk protect,hord ond hleoburh, hæleþa rice, the hoard and the stronghold, heroes' land,//eþel// Scyldinga. He þær eallum wearð, home of Scyldings. -- But here, thanes said,mæg Higelaces, manna cynne, the kinsman of Hygelac kinder seemedfreondum gefægra; hine fyren onwod. to all: the other was urged to crime!Hwilum flitende fealwe stræte And afresh to the race, the fallow roadsmearum mæton. ða wæs morgenleoht by swift steeds measured! The morning sunscofen ond scynded. Eode scealc monig was climbing higher. Clansmen hastenedswiðhicgende to sele þam hean to the high-built hall, those hardy-minded,searowundor seon; swylce self cyning the wonder to witness. Warden of treasure,of brydbure, beahhorda weard, crowned with glory, the king himself,tryddode tirfæst getrume micle, with stately band from the bride-bower strode;cystum gecyþed, ond his cwen mid him and with him the queen and her crowd of maidensmedostigge mæt mægþa hose. measured the path to the mead-house fair.Hroðgar maþelode he to healle geong, HROTHGAR spake, -- to the hall he went,stod on stapole, geseah steapne hrof, stood by the steps, the steep roof saw,golde fahne, ond Grendles hond: garnished with gold, and Grendel's hand:--ðisse ansyne alwealdan þanc "For the sight I see to the Sovran Rulerlungre gelimpe. Fela ic laþes gebad, be speedy thanks! A throng of sorrowsgrynna æt Grendle; a mæg god wyrcan I have borne from Grendel; but God still workswunder æfter wundre, wuldres hyrde. wonder on wonder, the Warden-of-Glory.ðæt wæs ungeara þæt ic ænigra me It was but now that I never moreweana ne wende to widan feore for woes that weighed on me waited helpbote gebidan, þonne blode fah long as I lived, when, laved in blood,husa selest heorodreorig stod, stood sword-gore-stained this stateliest house, --wea widscofen witena gehwylcum/ widespread woe for wise men all,ðara þe ne wendon þæt hie wideferhð who had no hope to hinder everleoda landgeweorc laþum beweredon foes infernal and fiendish spritesscuccum ond scinnum. Nu scealc hafað from havoc in hall. This hero now,þurh drihtnes miht dæd gefremede ðe by the Wielder's might, a work has donewe ealle ær/ ne meahton that not all of us erst could ever dosnyttrum besyrwan. Hwæt, þæt secgan mæg by wile and wisdom. Lo, well can she sayefne swa hwylc mægþa swa ðone magan cende whoso of women this warrior boreæfter gumcynnum, gyf heo gyt lyfað, among sons of men, if still she liveth,þæt hyre ealdmetod este wære that the God of the ages was good to herbearngebyrdo. Nu ic, Beowulf, þec, in the birth of her bairn. Now, Beowulf, thee,secg betsta, me/ for sunu wylle of heroes best, I shall heartily lovefreogan on ferhþe; heald forð tela as mine own, my son; preserve thou everniwe sibbe. Ne bið þe nænigra/ gad this kinship new: thou shalt never lackworolde wilna, þe ic geweald hæbbe. wealth of the world that I wield as mine!Ful oft ic for læssan lean teohhode, Full oft for less have I largess showered,hordweorþunge hnahran rince, my precious hoard, on a punier man,sæmran æt sæcce. þu þe self hafast less stout in struggle. Thyself hast nowdædum gefremed þæt þin dom/ lyfað fulfilled such deeds, that thy fame shall endureawa to aldre. Alwalda þec through all the ages. As ever he did,gode forgylde, swa he nu gyt dyde. well may the Wielder reward thee still!"Beowulf maþelode, bearn Ecþeowes: Beowulf spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:--We þæt ellenweorc estum miclum, "This work of war most willinglyfeohtan fremedon, frecne geneðdon we have fought, this fight, and fearlessly daredeafoð uncuþes. Uþe ic swiþor force of the foe. Fain, too, were Iþæt ðu hine selfne geseon moste, hadst thou but seen himself, what timefeond on frætewum fylwerigne. the fiend in his trappings tottered to fall!Ic hine/ hrædlice heardan clammum Swiftly, I thought, in strongest gripeon wælbedde wriþan þohte, on his bed of death to bind him down,þæt he for mundgripe/ minum scolde that he in the hent of this hand of minelicgean lifbysig, butan his lic swice. should breathe his last: but he broke away.Ic hine ne mihte, þa metod nolde, Him I might not -- the Maker willed not --ganges getwæman, no ic him þæs georne ætfealh, hinder from flight, and firm enough holdfeorhgeniðlan; wæs to foremihtig the life-destroyer: too sturdy was he,feond on feþe. Hwæþere he his folme forlet the ruthless, in running! For rescue, however,to lifwraþe last weardian, he left behind him his hand in pledge,earm ond eaxle. No þær ænige swa þeah arm and shoulder; nor aught of helpfeasceaft guma frofre gebohte; could the cursed one thus procure at þy leng leofað/ laðgeteona, None the longer liveth he, loathsome fiend,synnum geswenced, ac hyne sar hafað sunk in his sins, but sorrow holds himmid/ nydgripe/ nearwe befongen, tightly grasped in gripe of anguish,balwon bendum. ðær abidan sceal in baleful bonds, where bide he must,maga mane fah miclan domes, evil outlaw, such awful doomhu him scir metod scrifan wille. as the Mighty Maker shall mete him out."ða wæs swigra secg, sunu Eclafes, More silent seemed the son of Ecglafon gylpspræce guðgeweorca, in boastful speech of his battle-deeds,siþðan æþelingas eorles cræfte since athelings all, through the earl's great prowess,ofer heanne hrof hand sceawedon, beheld that hand, on the high roof gazing,feondes fingras. Foran æghwylc wæs, foeman's fingers, -- the forepart of eachstiðra/ nægla gehwylc, style gelicost, of the sturdy nails to steel was likest, --hæþenes handsporu hilderinces/, heathen's "hand-spear," hostile warrior'segl, unheoru. æghwylc gecwæð claw uncanny. 'Twas clear, they said,þæt him heardra nan hrinan wolde that him no blade of the brave could touch,iren ærgod, þæt ðæs ahlæcan how keen soever, or cut awayblodge beadufolme onberan wolde. that battle-hand bloody from baneful foe.ða wæs haten hreþe Heort innanweard THERE was hurry and hest in Heorot nowfolmum gefrætwod. Fela þæra wæs, for hands to bedeck it, and dense was the throngwera ond wifa, þe þæt winreced, of men and women the wine-hall to cleanse,gestsele gyredon. Goldfag scinon the guest-room to garnish. Gold-gay shone the hangingsweb æfter wagum, wundorsiona fela that were wove on the wall, and wonders manysecga gehwylcum þara þe on swylc starað. to delight each mortal that looks upon them.Wæs þæt beorhte bold tobrocen swiðe, Though braced within by iron bands,eal inneweard irenbendum fæst, that building bright was broken sorely;heorras tohlidene. Hrof ana genæs, rent were its hinges; the roof aloneealles ansund, þe se aglæca, held safe and sound, when, seared with crime,fyrendædum fag, on fleam gewand, the fiendish foe his flight essayed,aldres orwena. No þæt yðe byð of life despairing. -- No light thing that,to befleonne, fremme se þe wille, the flight for safety, -- essay it who will!ac gesecan/ sceal sawlberendra, Forced of fate, he shall find his waynyde genydde, niþða bearna, to the refuge ready for race of man,grundbuendra gearwe stowe, for soul-possessors, and sons of earth;þær his lichoma legerbedde fæst and there his body on bed of deathswefeþ æfter symle. þa wæs sæl ond mæl shall rest after revel. Arrived was the hourþæt to healle gang Healfdenes sunu; when to hall proceeded Healfdene's son:wolde self cyning symbel þicgan. the king himself would sit to banquet.Ne gefrægen ic þa mægþe maran weorode Ne'er heard I of host in haughtier throngymb hyra sincgyfan sel gebæran. more graciously gathered round giver-of-rings!Bugon þa to bence blædagande, Bowed then to bench those bearers-of-glory,fylle gefægon; fægere geþægon fain of the feasting. Featly receivedmedoful manig magas þara many a mead-cup the mighty-in-spirit,swiðhicgende/ on sele þam hean, kinsmen who sat in the sumptuous hall,Hroðgar ond Hroþulf. Heorot innan wæs Hrothgar and Hrothulf. Heorot nowfreondum afylled; nalles facenstafas was filled with friends; the folk of Scyldings|eodscyldingas þenden fremedon. ne'er yet had tried the traitor's deed.Forgeaf þa Beowulfe bearn/ Healfdenes To Beowulf gave the bairn of Healfdenesegen gyldenne sigores to leane; a gold-wove banner, guerdon of triumph,hroden hildecumbor, helm ond byrnan, broidered battle-flag, breastplate and helmet;mære maðþumsweord manige gesawon and a splendid sword was seen of manybeforan beorn beran. Beowulf geþah borne to the brave one. Beowulf tookful on flette; no he þære feohgyfte cup in hall: for such costly giftsfor sceotendum/ scamigan ðorfte. he suffered no shame in that soldier throng.Ne gefrægn ic freondlicor feower madmas For I heard of few heroes, in heartier mood,golde gegyrede gummanna fela with four such gifts, so fashioned with gold,in ealobence oðrum gesellan. on the ale-bench honoring others thus!Ymb þæs helmes hrof heafodbeorge O'er the roof of the helmet high, a ridge,wirum bewunden walu/ utan heold, wound with wires, kept ward o'er the head,þæt him fela laf frecne ne meahton lest the relict-of-files should fierce invade,scurheard sceþðan, þonne scyldfreca sharp in the strife, when that shielded heroongean gramum gangan scolde. should go to grapple against his foes.Heht ða eorla hleo eahta mearas Then the earls'-defence on the floor bade leadfætedhleore on flet teon, coursers eight, with carven head-gear,in/ under eoderas. þara anum stod adown the hall: one horse was deckedsadol searwum fah, since gewurþad; with a saddle all shining and set in jewels;þæt wæs hildesetl heahcyninges, 'twas the battle-seat of the best of kings,ðonne sweorda gelac sunu Healfdenes when to play of swords the son of Healfdeneefnan wolde. Næfre on ore læg was fain to fare. Ne'er failed his valorwidcuþes wig, ðonne walu feollon. in the crush of combat when corpses fell.Ond ða Beowulfe bega gehwæþres To Beowulf over them both then gaveeodor Ingwina onweald geteah, the refuge-of-Ingwines right and power,wicga ond wæpna, het hine wel brucan. o'er war-steeds and weapons: wished him joy of them.Swa manlice mære þeoden, Manfully thus the mighty prince,hordweard hæleþa, heaþoræsas geald hoard-guard for heroes, that hard fight repaidmearum ond madmum, swa hy næfre man lyhð, with steeds and treasures contemned by nonese þe secgan wile soð æfter rihte. who is willing to say the sooth aright.ða gyt æghwylcum eorla drihten AND the lord of earls, to each that cameþara þe mid Beowulfe brimlade/ teah with Beowulf over the briny ways,on þære medubence maþðum gesealde, an heirloom there at the ale-bench gave,yrfelafe, ond þone ænne heht precious gift; and the price bade paygolde forgyldan, þone ðe Grendel ær in gold for him whom Grendel erstmane acwealde, swa he hyra ma wolde, murdered, -- and fain of them more had killed,nefne him witig god wyrd forstode had not wisest God their Wyrd averted,ond ðæs mannes mod. Metod eallum weold and the man's brave mood. The Maker thengumena cynnes, swa he nu git deð. ruled human kind, as here and now.Forþan bið andgit æghwær selest, Therefore is insight always best,ferhðes foreþanc. Fela sceal gebidan and forethought of mind. How much awaits himleofes ond laþes se þe longe her of lief and of loath, who long time here,on ðyssum windagum worolde bruceð. through days of warfare this world endures!þær wæs sang ond sweg samod ætgædere Then song and music mingled soundsfore Healfdenes hildewisan, in the presence of Healfdene's head-of-armiesgomenwudu greted, gid oft wrecen, and harping was heard with the hero-layðonne healgamen Hroþgares scop as Hrothgar's singer the hall-joy wokeæfter medobence mænan scolde along the mead-seats, making his songbe/ Finnes eaferum, ða hie se fær begeat, of that sudden raid on the sons of Finn.hæleð Healfdena, Hnæf Scyldinga, Healfdene's hero, Hnaef the Scylding,in Freswæle feallan scolde. was fated to fall in the Frisian slaughter.Ne huru Hildeburh herian þorfte Hildeburh needed not hold in valueEotena treowe; unsynnum wearð her enemies' honor! Innocent bothbeloren leofum æt þam lindplegan/, were the loved ones she lost at the linden-play,bearnum ond broðrum; hie on gebyrd hruron, bairn and brother, they bowed to fate,gare wunde. þæt wæs geomuru ides. stricken by spears; 'twas a sorrowful woman!Nalles holinga Hoces dohtor None doubted why the daughter of Hocmeotodsceaft bemearn, syþðan/ morgen com, bewailed her doom when dawning came,ða heo under swegle geseon meahte and under the sky she saw them lying,morþorbealo maga, þær heo ær mæste heold kinsmen murdered, where most she had kennedworolde wynne. Wig ealle fornam of the sweets of the world! By war were swept, too,Finnes þegnas nemne feaum anum, Finn's own liegemen, and few were left;þæt he ne mehte on þæm meðelstede in the parleying-place he could ply no longerwig Hengeste wiht gefeohtan, weapon, nor war could he wage on Hengest,ne þa wealafe wige forþringan and rescue his remnant by right of armsþeodnes ðegna/. ac hig him geþingo budon, from the prince's thane. A pact he offered:þæt hie him oðer flet eal gerymdon, another dwelling the Danes should have,healle ond heahsetl, þæt hie healfre geweald hall and high-seat, and half the powerwið Eotena bearn agan moston, should fall to them in Frisian land;ond æt feohgyftum Folcwaldan sunu and at the fee-gifts, Folcwald's sondogra gehwylce Dene weorþode, day by day the Danes should honor,Hengestes heap hringum wenede the folk of Hengest favor with rings,efne swa swiðe sincgestreonum even as truly, with treasure and jewels,fættan goldes, swa he Fresena cyn with fretted gold, as his Frisian kinon beorsele byldan wolde. he meant to honor in ale-hall there.ða hie getruwedon on twa healfa Pact of peace they plighted furtherfæste frioðuwære. Fin Hengeste on both sides firmly. Finn to Hengestelne, unflitme aðum benemde with oath, upon honor, openly promisedþæt he þa wealafe weotena dome that woful remnant, with wise-men's aid,arum heolde, þæt ðær ænig mon nobly to govern, so none of the guestswordum ne worcum wære ne bræce, by word or work should warp the treaty,ne þurh inwitsearo æfre gemænden or with malice of mind bemoan themselvesðeah hie hira beaggyfan banan folgedon as forced to follow their fee-giver's slayer,ðeodenlease, þa him swa geþearfod wæs. lordless men, as their lot ordained.gyf þonne Frysna hwylc frecnan/ spræce Should Frisian, moreover, with foeman's taunt,ðæs morþorhetes myndgiend wære, that murderous hatred to mind recall,þonne hit sweordes ecg seðan/ scolde. then edge of the sword must seal his doom.Ad/ wæs geæfned ond icge gold Oaths were given, and ancient goldahæfen of horde. Herescyldinga heaped from hoard. -- The hardy Scylding,betst beadorinca wæs on bæl gearu. battle-thane best, on his balefire lay.æt þæm ade wæs eþgesyne All on the pyre were plain to seeswatfah syrce, swyn ealgylden, the gory sark, the gilded swine-crest,eofer irenheard, æþeling manig boar of hard iron, and athelings manywundum awyrded; sume on wæle crungon. slain by the sword: at the slaughter they fell.Het ða Hildeburh æt Hnæfes ade It was Hildeburh's hest, at Hnaef's own pyrehire selfre sunu sweoloðe befæstan, the bairn of her body on brands to lay,banfatu bærnan ond on bæl don his bones to burn, on the balefire placed,eame/ on eaxle. Ides gnornode, at his uncle's side. In sorrowful dirgesgeomrode giddum. Guðrinc astah. bewept them the woman: great wailing ascended.Wand to wolcnum wælfyra mæst, Then wound up to welkin the wildest of death-fires,hlynode for hlawe; hafelan multon, roared o'er the hillock: heads all were melted,bengeato burston, ðonne blod ætspranc, gashes burst, and blood gushed outlaðbite lices. Lig ealle forswealg, from bites of the body. Balefire devoured,gæsta gifrost, þara ðe þær guð fornam greediest spirit, those spared not by warbega folces; wæs hira blæd scacen. out of either folk: their flower was gone.Gewiton him ða wigend wica neosian, THEN hastened those heroes their home to see,freondum befeallen, Frysland geseon, friendless, to find the Frisian land,hamas ond heaburh. Hengest ða gyt houses and high burg. Hengest stillwælfagne winter wunode mid Finne through the death-dyed winter dwelt with Finn,eal/ unhlitme. Eard gemunde, holding pact, yet of home he minded,þeah þe he ne/ meahte on mere drifan though powerless his ring-decked prow to drivehringedstefnan; holm storme weol, over the waters, now waves rolled fiercewon wið winde, winter yþe beleac lashed by the winds, or winter locked themisgebinde, oþðæt oþer com in icy fetters. Then fared anothergear in geardas, swa nu gyt deð, year to men's dwellings, as yet they do,þa ðe syngales sele bewitiað/, the sunbright skies, that their season everwuldortorhtan weder. ða wæs winter scacen, duly await. Far off winter was driven;fæger foldan bearm. Fundode wrecca, fair lay earth's breast; and fain was the rover,gist of geardum; he to gyrnwræce the guest, to depart, though more gladly he ponderedswiðor þohte þonne to sælade, on wreaking his vengeance than roaming the deep,gif he torngemot þurhteon mihte and how to hasten the hot encounterþæt he Eotena bearn inne gemunde. where sons of the Frisians were sure to be.Swa he ne forwyrnde woroldrædenne, So he escaped not the common doom,þonne him Hunlafing hildeleoman, when Hun with "Lafing," the light-of-battle,billa selest, on bearm dyde, best of blades, his bosom pierced:þæs wæron mid Eotenum ecge cuðe. its edge was famed with the Frisian earls.Swylce ferhðfrecan Fin eft begeat On fierce-heart Finn there fell likewise,sweordbealo sliðen æt his selfes ham, on himself at home, the horrid sword-death;siþðan grimne gripe Guðlaf ond Oslaf for Guthlaf and Oslaf of grim attackæfter sæsiðe, sorge, mændon, had sorrowing told, from sea-ways landed,ætwiton weana dæl; ne meahte wæfre mod mourning their woes. Finn's wavering spiritforhabban in hreþre. ða wæs heal roden/ bode not in breast. The burg was reddenedfeonda feorum, swilce Fin slægen, with blood of foemen, and Finn was slain,cyning on corþre, ond seo cwen numen. king amid clansmen; the queen was taken.Sceotend Scyldinga to scypon feredon To their ship the Scylding warriors boreeal ingesteald eorðcyninges, all the chattels the chieftain owned,swylce hie æt Finnes ham findan meahton whatever they found in Finn's domainsigla, searogimma. Hie on sælade of gems and jewels. The gentle wifedrihtlice wif to Denum feredon, o'er paths of the deep to the Danes they bore,læddon to leodum. Leoð wæs asungen, led to her land. The lay was finished,gleomannes gyd. Gamen eft astah, the gleeman's song. Then glad rose the revel;beorhtode bencsweg; byrelas sealdon bench-joy brightened. Bearers drawwin of wunderfatum. þa cwom Wealhþeo forð from their "wonder-vats" wine. Comes Wealhtheow forth,gan under gyldnum beage, þær þa godan twegen under gold-crown goes where the good pair sit,sæton suhtergefæderan; þa gyt wæs hiera sib ætgædere, uncle and nephew, true each to the other one,æghwylc oðrum trywe. Swylce þær Unferþ þyle kindred in amity. Unferth the spokesmanæt fotum sæt frean Scyldinga; gehwylc hiora his ferhþe treowde, at the Scylding lord's feet sat: men had faith in his spirit,þæt he hæfde mod micel, þeah þe he his magum nære his keenness of courage, though kinsmen had found himarfæst æt ecga gelacum. Spræc ða ides Scyldinga: unsure at the sword-play. The Scylding queen spoke:Onfoh þissum fulle, freodrihten min, "Quaff of this cup, my king and lord,sinces brytta. þu on sælum wes, breaker of rings, and blithe be thou,goldwine gumena, ond to Geatum spræc gold-friend of men; to the Geats here speakmildum wordum, swa sceal man don. such words of mildness as man should use.Beo wið Geatas glæd, geofena gemyndig, Be glad with thy Geats; of those gifts be mindful,nean ond feorran þu nu hafast. or near or far, which now thou hast.Me man sægde þæt þu ðe for sunu wolde Men say to me, as son thou wishesthererinc/ habban. Heorot is gefælsod, yon hero to hold. Thy Heorot purged,beahsele beorhta; bruc þenden þu mote jewel-hall brightest, enjoy while thou canst,manigra medo, ond þinum magum læf with many a largess; and leave to thy kinfolc ond rice, þonne ðu forð scyle folk and realm when forth thou goestmetodsceaft seon. Ic minne can to greet thy doom. For gracious I deemglædne Hroþulf, þæt he þa geogoðe wile my Hrothulf, willing to hold and rulearum healdan, gyf þu ær þonne/ he, nobly our youths, if thou yield up first,wine Scildinga, worold oflætest; prince of Scyldings, thy part in the world.wene ic þæt he mid gode gyldan wille I ween with good he will well requiteuncran eaferan, gif he þæt eal gemon, offspring of ours, when all he mindshwæt wit to willan ond to worðmyndum that for him we did in his helpless daysumborwesendum ær arna gefremedon. of gift and grace to gain him honor!"Hwearf þa bi bence þær hyre byre wæron, Then she turned to the seat where her sons were placed,Hreðric ond Hroðmund, ond hæleþa bearn, Hrethric and Hrothmund, with heroes' bairns,giogoð ætgædere; þær se goda sæt, young men together: the Geat, too, sat there,Beowulf Geata, be þæm gebroðrum twæm. Beowulf brave, the brothers between.Him wæs ful boren ond freondlaþu A CUP she gave him, with kindly greetingwordum bewægned, ond wunden gold and winsome words. Of wounden gold,estum geeawed, earmreade twa, she offered, to honor him, arm-jewels twain,hrægl ond hringas, healsbeaga mæst corselet and rings, and of collars the noblestþara þe ic on foldan gefrægen hæbbe. that ever I knew the earth around.Nænigne ic under swegle selran hyrde Ne'er heard I so mighty, 'neath heaven's dome,hordmaððum hæleþa, syþðan Hama ætwæg a hoard-gem of heroes, since Hama boreto þære/ byrhtan byrig Brosinga mene, to his bright-built burg the Brisings' necklace,sigle ond sincfæt; searoniðas fleah/ jewel and gem casket. -- Jealousy fled he,Eormenrices, geceas ecne ræd. Eormenric's hate: chose help eternal.þone hring hæfde Higelac Geata, Hygelac Geat, grandson of Swerting,nefa Swertinges, nyhstan siðe, on the last of his raids this ring bore with him,siðþan he under segne sinc ealgode, under his banner the booty defending,wælreaf werede; hyne wyrd fornam, the war-spoil warding; but Wyrd o'erwhelmed himsyþðan he for wlenco wean ahsode, what time, in his daring, dangers he sought,fæhðe to Frysum. He þa frætwe wæg, feud with Frisians. Fairest of gemseorclanstanas ofer yða ful, he bore with him over the beaker-of-waves,rice þeoden; he under rande gecranc. sovran strong: under shield he died.Gehwearf þa in Francna fæþm feorh cyninges, Fell the corpse of the king into keeping of Franks,breostgewædu ond se beah somod; gear of the breast, and that gorgeous ring;wyrsan wigfrecan wæl reafedon/ weaker warriors won the spoil,æfter guðsceare, Geata leode, after gripe of battle, from Geatland's lord,hreawic heoldon. Heal swege onfeng. and held the death-field. Din rose in hall.Wealhðeo maþelode, heo fore þæm werede spræc: Wealhtheow spake amid warriors, and said:--Bruc ðisses beages, Beowulf leofa, "This jewel enjoy in thy jocund youth,hyse, mid hæle, ond þisses hrægles neot, Beowulf lov'd, these battle-weeds wear,þeodgestreona/, ond geþeoh tela, a royal treasure, and richly thrive!cen þec mid cræfte ond þyssum cnyhtum wes Preserve thy strength, and these striplings herelara liðe; ic þe þæs lean geman. counsel in kindness: requital be mine.Hafast/ þu gefered þæt ðe feor ond neah Hast done such deeds, that for days to comeealne wideferhþ weras ehtigað, thou art famed among folk both far and near,efne swa side swa sæ bebugeð/, so wide as washeth the wave of Oceanwindgeard, weallas. Wes þenden þu lifige, his windy walls. Through the ways of lifeæþeling, eadig. Ic þe an tela prosper, O prince! I pray for theesincgestreona. Beo þu suna minum rich possessions. To son of minedædum gedefe, dreamhealdende. be helpful in deed and uphold his joys!Her is æghwylc eorl oþrum getrywe, Here every earl to the other is true,modes milde, mandrihtne hold/; mild of mood, to the master loyal!þegnas syndon geþwære, þeod ealgearo, Thanes are friendly, the throng obedient,druncne dryhtguman doð swa ic bidde. liegemen are revelling: list and obey!"Eode þa to setle. þær wæs symbla cyst; Went then to her place. -- That was proudest of feasts;druncon win weras. Wyrd ne cuþon, flowed wine for the warriors. Wyrd they knew not,geosceaft grimme/, swa hit agangen wearð destiny dire, and the doom to be seeneorla manegum, syþðan æfen cwom by many an earl when eve should come,ond him Hroþgar gewat to hofe sinum, and Hrothgar homeward hasten away,rice to ræste. Reced weardode royal, to rest. The room was guardedunrim eorla, swa hie oft ær dydon. by an army of earls, as erst was done.Bencþelu beredon; hit geondbræded wearð They bared the bench-boards; abroad they spreadbeddum ond bolstrum. Beorscealca sum beds and bolsters. -- One beer-carouserfus ond fæge fletræste gebeag. in danger of doom lay down in the hall. --Setton him to heafdon hilderandas, At their heads they set their shields of war,bordwudu beorhtan; þær on bence wæs bucklers bright; on the bench were thereofer æþelinge yþgesene over each atheling, easy to see,heaþosteapa helm, hringed byrne, the high battle-helmet, the haughty spear,þrecwudu þrymlic. Wæs þeaw/ hyra the corselet of rings. 'Twas their custom soþæt hie oft wæron an wig gearwe, ever to be for battle prepared,ge æt ham ge on herge, ge gehwæþer þara, at home, or harrying, which it were,efne swylce mæla swylce hira mandryhtne even as oft as evil threatenedþearf gesælde; wæs seo þeod tilu. their sovran king. -- They were clansmen good.Sigon þa to slæpe. Sum sare angeald THEN sank they to sleep. With sorrow one boughtæfenræste, swa him ful oft gelamp, his rest of the evening, -- as ofttime had happenedsiþðan goldsele Grendel warode, when Grendel guarded that golden hall,unriht æfnde, oþþæt ende becwom, evil wrought, till his end drew nigh,swylt æfter synnum. þæt gesyne wearþ, slaughter for sins. 'Twas seen and toldwidcuþ werum, þætte wrecend þa gyt how an avenger survived the fiend,lifde æfter laþum, lange þrage, as was learned afar. The livelong timeæfter guðceare. Grendles modor, after that grim fight, Grendel's mother,ides, aglæcwif, yrmþe gemunde, monster of women, mourned her þe wæteregesan wunian scolde, She was doomed to dwell in the dreary waters,cealde streamas, siþðan Cain/ wearð cold sea-courses, since Cain cut downto ecgbanan angan breþer, with edge of the sword his only brother,fæderenmæge; he þa fag gewat, his father's offspring: outlawed he fled,morþre gemearcod, mandream fleon, marked with murder, from men's delightswesten warode. þanon woc/ fela warded the wilds. -- There woke from himgeosceaftgasta; wæs þæra Grendel sum, such fate-sent ghosts as Grendel, who,heorowearh hetelic, se æt Heorote fand war-wolf horrid, at Heorot foundwæccendne wer wiges bidan. a warrior watching and waiting the fray,þær him aglæca ætgræpe wearð; with whom the grisly one grappled amain.hwæþre he gemunde mægenes strenge, But the man remembered his mighty power,gimfæste gife ðe him god sealde, the glorious gift that God had sent him,ond him to anwaldan are gelyfde, in his Maker's mercy put his trustfrofre ond fultum; ðy he þone feond ofercwom, for comfort and help: so he conquered the foe,gehnægde helle gast. þa he hean gewat, felled the fiend, who fled abject,dreame bedæled, deaþwic seon, reft of joy, to the realms of death,mancynnes feond, ond his modor þa gyt, mankind's foe. And his mother now,gifre ond galgmod, gegan wolde gloomy and grim, would go that questsorhfulne sið, sunu deað/ wrecan. of sorrow, the death of her son to avenge.Com þa to Heorote, ðær Hringdene To Heorot came she, where helmeted Danesgeond þæt sæld swæfun. þa ðær sona wearð slept in the hall. Too soon came backedhwyrft eorlum, siþðan inne fealh old ills of the earls, when in she burst,Grendles modor. Wæs se gryre læssa the mother of Grendel. Less grim, though, that terror,efne swa micle swa bið mægþa cræft, e'en as terror of woman in war is less,wiggryre wifes, be wæpnedmen, might of maid, than of men in armsþonne/ heoru bunden, hamere geþuren, when, hammer-forged, the falchion hard,sweord swate fah swin ofer helme sword gore-stained, through swine of the helm,ecgum dyhttig/ andweard scireð. crested, with keen blade carves amain.þa wæs on healle heardecg togen Then was in hall the hard-edge drawn,sweord ofer setlum, sidrand manig the swords on the settles, and shields a-manyhafen handa fæst; helm ne gemunde, firm held in hand: nor helmet mindedbyrnan side, þa hine se broga angeat. nor harness of mail, whom that horror seized.Heo wæs on ofste, wolde ut þanon, Haste was hers; she would hie afarfeore beorgan, þa heo onfunden wæs. and save her life when the liegemen saw her.Hraðe heo æþelinga anne hæfde Yet a single atheling up she seizedfæste befangen, þa heo to fenne gang. fast and firm, as she fled to the moor.Se wæs Hroþgare hæleþa leofost He was for Hrothgar of heroes the dearest,on gesiðes had be sæm tweonum, of trusty vassals betwixt the seas,rice randwiga, þone ðe heo on ræste abreat, whom she killed on his couch, a clansman famous,blædfæstne beorn. Næs Beowulf ðær, in battle brave. -- Nor was Beowulf there;ac wæs oþer in ær geteohhod another house had been held apart,æfter maþðumgife mærum Geate. after giving of gold, for the Geat renowned. --Hream wearð in Heorote; heo under heolfre genam Uproar filled Heorot; the hand all had viewed,cuþe folme; cearu wæs geniwod, blood-flecked, she bore with her; bale was returned,geworden in wicun. Ne wæs þæt gewrixle til, dole in the dwellings: 'twas dire exchangeþæt hie on ba healfa bicgan scoldon where Dane and Geat were doomed to givefreonda feorum. þa wæs frod cyning, the lives of loved ones. Long-tried king,har hilderinc, on hreon mode, the hoary hero, at heart was sadsyðþan he aldorþegn unlyfigendne/, when he knew his noble no more lived,þone deorestan deadne wisse. and dead indeed was his dearest thane.Hraþe/ wæs to bure Beowulf fetod, To his bower was Beowulf brought in haste,sigoreadig secg. Samod ærdæge dauntless victor. As daylight broke,eode eorla sum, æþele cempa along with his earls the atheling lord,self mid gesiðum þær se snotera bad, with his clansmen, came where the king abodehwæþer/ him alwalda æfre wille waiting to see if the Wielder-of-Allæfter weaspelle wyrpe gefremman. would turn this tale of trouble and woe.Gang ða æfter flore fyrdwyrðe man Strode o'er floor the famed-in-strife,mid his handscale healwudu dynede, with his hand-companions, -- the hall resounded, --þæt he þone wisan wordum nægde/ wishing to greet the wise old king,frean Ingwina, frægn gif him wære Ingwines' lord; he asked if the nightæfter neodlaðum/ niht getæse. had passed in peace to the prince's mind.Hroðgar maþelode, helm Scyldinga: HROTHGAR spake, helmet-of-Scyldings:--Ne frin þu æfter sælum. Sorh is geniwod "Ask not of pleasure! Pain is renewedDenigea leodum. Dead is æschere, to Danish folk. Dead is Aeschere,Yrmenlafes yldra broþor, of Yrmenlaf the elder brother,min runwita ond min rædbora, my sage adviser and stay in council,eaxlgestealla, ðonne we on orlege shoulder-comrade in stress of fighthafelan weredon, þonne hniton feþan, when warriors clashed and we warded our heads,eoferas cynsedan. Swylc/ scolde eorl wesan, hewed the helm-boars; hero famedæþeling/ ærgod, swylc æschere wæs. should be every earl as Aeschere was!Wearð him on Heorote to handbanan But here in Heorot a hand hath slain himwælgæst wæfre; ic ne wat hwæder/ of wandering death-sprite. I wot not whither,atol æse wlanc eftsiðas teah, proud of the prey, her path she took,fylle gefægnod/. Heo þa fæhðe wræc fain of her fill. The feud she avengedþe þu gystranniht Grendel cwealdest that yesternight, unyieldingly,þurh hæstne had heardum clammum, Grendel in grimmest grasp thou killedst, --forþan he to lange leode mine seeing how long these liegemen minewanode ond wyrde. He æt wige gecrang he ruined and ravaged. Reft of life,ealdres scyldig, ond nu oþer cwom in arms he fell. Now another comes,mihtig manscaða, wolde hyre mæg wrecan, keen and cruel, her kin to avenge,ge feor hafað fæhðe gestæled faring far in feud of blood:þæs þe þincean mæg þegne monegum, so that many a thane shall think, who e'erse þe æfter sincgyfan on sefan greoteþ, sorrows in soul for that sharer of rings,hreþerbealo hearde; nu seo hand ligeð, this is hardest of heart-bales. The hand lies lowse þe eow welhwylcra/ wilna dohte. that once was willing each wish to please.Ic þæt londbuend, leode mine, Land-dwellers here and liegemen mine,selerædende, secgan hyrde who house by those parts, I have heard relateþæt hie gesawon swylce twegen that such a pair they have sometimes seen,micle mearcstapan moras healdan, march-stalkers mighty the moorland haunting,ellorgæstas. ðæra oðer wæs, wandering spirits: one of them seemed,þæs þe hie gewislicost gewitan meahton, so far as my folk could fairly judge,idese onlicnæs; oðer earmsceapen of womankind; and one, accursed,on weres wæstmum wræclastas træd, in man's guise trod the misery-tracknæfne he wæs mara þonne ænig man oðer; of exile, though huger than human bulk.þone on geardagum Grendel nemdon/ Grendel in days long gone they named him,foldbuende. No hie fæder cunnon, folk of the land; his father they knew not,hwæþer him ænig wæs ær acenned nor any brood that was born to himdyrnra gasta. Hie dygel lond of treacherous spirits. Untrod is their home;warigeað, wulfhleoþu, windige/ næssas, by wolf-cliffs haunt they and windy headlands,frecne fengelad, ðær fyrgenstream fenways fearful, where flows the streamunder næssa genipu niþer gewiteð, from mountains gliding to gloom of the rocks,flod under foldan. Nis þæt feor heonon underground flood. Not far is it hencemilgemearces þæt se mere standeð/; in measure of miles that the mere expands,ofer þæm hongiað hrinde bearwas, and o'er it the frost-bound forest hanging,wudu wyrtum fæst wæter oferhelmað. sturdily rooted, shadows the wave.þær mæg nihta gehwæm niðwundor seon, By night is a wonder weird to see,fyr on flode. No þæs frod leofað fire on the waters. So wise lived nonegumena bearna, þæt þone grund wite; of the sons of men, to search those depths!ðeah þe hæðstapa hundum geswenced, Nay, though the heath-rover, harried by dogs,heorot hornum trum, holtwudu sece, the horn-proud hart, this holt should seek,feorran geflymed, ær he feorh seleð, long distance driven, his dear life firstaldor on ofre, ær he in wille on the brink he yields ere he brave the plungehafelan hydan/. Nis þæt heoru stow. to hide his head: 'tis no happy place!þonon yðgeblond up astigeð Thence the welter of waters washes upwon to wolcnum, þonne wind styreþ, wan to welkin when winds bestirlað gewidru, oðþæt lyft drysmaþ, evil storms, and air grows dusk,roderas reotað. Nu is se ræd gelang and the heavens weep. Now is help once moreeft æt þe anum. Eard git ne const, with thee alone! The land thou knowst not,frecne stowe, ðær þu findan miht place of fear, where thou findest outfelasinnigne secg; sec gif þu dyrre. that sin-flecked being. Seek if thou dare!Ic þe þa fæhðe feo leanige, I will reward thee, for waging this fight,ealdgestreonum, swa ic ær dyde, with ancient treasure, as erst I did,wundnum/ golde, gyf þu on weg cymest. with winding gold, if thou winnest back."Beowulf maþelode, bearn Ecgþeowes/: BEOWULF spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:Ne sorga, snotor guma; selre bið æghwæm "Sorrow not, sage! It beseems us betterþæt he his freond wrece, þonne he fela murne. friends to avenge than fruitlessly mourn them.Ure æghwylc/ sceal ende gebidan Each of us all must his end abideworolde lifes; wyrce se þe mote in the ways of the world; so win who maydomes ær deaþe; þæt bið drihtguman glory ere death! When his days are told,unlifgendum æfter selest. that is the warrior's worthiest doom.Aris, rices weard, uton raþe/ feran Rise, O realm-warder! Ride we anon,Grendles magan gang sceawigan. and mark the trail of the mother of Grendel.Ic hit þe gehate, no he on helm losaþ, No harbor shall hide her -- heed my promise! --ne on foldan fæþm, ne on fyrgenholt, enfolding of field or forested mountainne on gyfenes grund, ga þær he wille. or floor of the flood, let her flee where she will!ðys dogor þu geþyld hafa But thou this day endure in patience,weana gehwylces, swa ic þe wene to. as I ween thou wilt, thy woes each one."Ahleop ða se gomela, gode þancode, Leaped up the graybeard: God he thanked,mihtigan drihtne, þæs se man gespræc/. mighty Lord, for the man's brave words.þa wæs Hroðgare hors gebæted, For Hrothgar soon a horse was saddledwicg wundenfeax. Wisa fengel wave-maned steed. The sovran wisegeatolic/ gende; gumfeþa stop stately rode on; his shield-armed menlindhæbbendra. Lastas wæron followed in force. The footprints ledæfter waldswaþum wide gesyne, along the woodland, widely seen,gang ofer grundas, þær/ heo/ gegnum for a path o'er the plain, where she passed, and trodofer myrcan mor, magoþegna bær the murky moor; of men-at-armsþone selestan sawolleasne she bore the bravest and best one, dead,þara þe mid Hroðgare ham eahtode. him who with Hrothgar the homestead ruled.Ofereode þa æþelinga bearn On then went the atheling-bornsteap stanhliðo, stige nearwe, o'er stone-cliffs steep and strait defiles,enge anpaðas, uncuð gelad, narrow passes and unknown ways,neowle næssas, nicorhusa fela. headlands sheer, and the haunts of the Nicors.He feara sum beforan gengde Foremost he fared, a few at his sidewisra monna wong sceawian, of the wiser men, the ways to scan,oþþæt he færinga fyrgenbeamas till he found in a flash the forested hillofer harne stan hleonian funde, hanging over the hoary rock,wynleasne wudu; wæter under stod a woful wood: the waves belowdreorig ond gedrefed. Denum eallum wæs, were dyed in blood. The Danish menwinum Scyldinga, weorce on mode had sorrow of soul, and for Scyldings all,to geþolianne, ðegne monegum, for many a hero, 'twas hard to bear,oncyð eorla gehwæm, syðþan æscheres ill for earls, when Aeschere's headon þam holmclife hafelan metton. they found by the flood on the foreland there.Flod blode weol folc to sægon, Waves were welling, the warriors saw,hatan heolfre. Horn stundum song hot with blood; but the horn sang oftfuslic fyrdleoð/. Feþa eal gesæt. battle-song bold. The band sat down,Gesawon ða æfter wætere wyrmcynnes fela, and watched on the water worm-like things,sellice sædracan, sund cunnian, sea-dragons strange that sounded the deep,swylce on næshleoðum nicras licgean, and nicors that lay on the ledge of the ness --ða on undernmæl oft bewitigað such as oft essay at hour of mornsorhfulne sið on seglrade, on the road-of-sails their ruthless quest, --wyrmas ond wildeor; hie on weg hruron, and sea-snakes and monsters. These started away,bitere ond gebolgne, bearhtm ongeaton, swollen and savage that song to hear,guðhorn galan. Sumne Geata leod that war-horn's blast. The warden of Geats,of flanbogan feores getwæfde, with bolt from bow, then balked of life,yðgewinnes, þæt him on aldre stod of wave-work, one monster, amid its heartherestræl hearda; he on holme wæs went the keen war-shaft; in water it seemedsundes þe sænra, ðe hyne swylt fornam. less doughty in swimming whom death had seized.Hræþe wearð on yðum mid eoferspreotum Swift on the billows, with boar-spears wellheorohocyhtum hearde genearwod, hooked and barbed, it was hard beset,niða genæged, ond on næs togen, done to death and dragged on the headland,wundorlic wægbora; weras sceawedon wave-roamer wondrous. Warriors viewedgryrelicne gist. Gyrede hine Beowulf the grisly guest. Then girt him Beowulfeorlgewædum, nalles for ealdre mearn. in martial mail, nor mourned for his life.Scolde herebyrne hondum gebroden, His breastplate broad and bright of hues,sid ond searofah, sund cunnian, woven by hand, should the waters try;seo ðe bancofan beorgan cuþe, well could it ward the warrior's bodyþæt him hildegrap hreþre ne mihte, that battle should break on his breast in vaineorres inwitfeng, aldre gesceþðan. nor harm his heart by the hand of a se hwita helm hafelan werede, And the helmet white that his head protectedse þe meregrundas mengan scolde, was destined to dare the deeps of the flood,secan sundgebland since geweorðad/, through wave-whirl win: 'twas wound with chains,befongen freawrasnum, swa hine fyrndagum decked with gold, as in days of yoreworhte wæpna smið, wundrum teode, the weapon-smith worked it wondrously,besette swinlicum, þæt hine syðþan no with swine-forms set it, that swords nowise,brond ne beadomecas bitan ne meahton. brandished in battle, could bite that helm.Næs þæt þonne mætost mægenfultuma Nor was that the meanest of mighty helpsþæt him on ðearfe lah ðyle Hroðgares; which Hrothgar's orator offered at need:wæs þæm hæftmece Hrunting nama. "Hrunting" they named the hilted sword,þæt wæs an foran ealdgestreona; of old-time heirlooms easily first;ecg wæs iren, atertanum fah, iron was its edge, all etched with poison,ahyrded heaþoswate; næfre hit æt hilde ne swac with battle-blood hardened, nor blenched it at fightmanna ængum þara þe hit mid mundum bewand, in hero's hand who held it ever,se ðe gryresiðas gegan dorste, on paths of peril prepared to gofolcstede fara; næs þæt forma sið to folkstead of foes. Not first time thisþæt hit ellenweorc æfnan scolde. it was destined to do a daring task.Huru ne gemunde mago Ecglafes, For he bore not in mind, the bairn of Ecglafeafoþes cræftig, þæt he ær gespræc sturdy and strong, that speech he had made,wine druncen, þa he þæs wæpnes onlah drunk with wine, now this weapon he lentselran sweordfrecan. Selfa ne dorste to a stouter swordsman. Himself, though, durst notunder yða gewin aldre geneþan, under welter of waters wager his lifedrihtscype dreogan; þær he dome forleas, as loyal liegeman. So lost he his glory,ellenmærðum/. Ne wæs þæm oðrum swa, honor of earls. With the other not so,syðþan he hine to guðe gegyred hæfde. who girded him now for the grim encounter.Beowulf maðelode, bearn Ecgþeowes: BEOWULF spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:--Geþenc nu, se mæra maga Healfdenes, "Have mind, thou honored offspring of Healfdenesnottra fengel, nu ic eom siðes fus, gold-friend of men, now I go on this quest,goldwine gumena, hwæt wit geo spræcon, sovran wise, what once was said:gif ic æt þearfe þinre scolde if in thy cause it came that Ialdre linnan, þæt ðu me a wære should lose my life, thou wouldst loyal bideforðgewitenum on fæder stæle. to me, though fallen, in father's place!Wes þu mundbora minum magoþegnum, Be guardian, thou, to this group of my thanes,hondgesellum, gif mec hild nime; my warrior-friends, if War should seize me;swylce þu ða madmas þe þu me sealdest, and the goodly gifts thou gavest me,Hroðgar leofa, Higelace onsend. Hrothgar beloved, to Hygelac send!Mæg þonne on þæm golde ongitan Geata dryhten, Geatland's king may ken by the gold,geseon sunu Hrædles, þonne he on þæt sinc starað, Hrethel's son see, when he stares at the treasure,þæt ic gumcystum godne funde that I got me a friend for goodness famed,beaga bryttan, breac þonne moste. and joyed while I could in my jewel-bestower.Ond þu Unferð/ læt ealde lafe, And let Unferth wield this wondrous sword,wrætlic wægsweord, widcuðne man earl far-honored, this heirloom precious,heardecg habban; ic me mid Hruntinge hard of edge: with Hrunting Idom gewyrce, oþðe mec deað nimeð. seek doom of glory, or Death shall take me."æfter þæm wordum Wedergeata leod After these words the Weder-Geat lordefste mid elne, nalas ondsware boldly hastened, biding neverbidan wolde; brimwylm onfeng answer at all: the ocean floodshilderince/. ða wæs hwil dæges closed o'er the hero. Long while of the dayær he þone grundwong ongytan mehte. fled ere he felt the floor of the sea.Sona þæt onfunde se ðe floda begong Soon found the fiend who the flood-domainheorogifre beheold hund missera, sword-hungry held these hundred winters,grim ond grædig, þæt þær gumena sum greedy and grim, that some guest from above,ælwihta eard ufan cunnode. some man, was raiding her monster-realm.Grap þa togeanes, guðrinc gefeng She grasped out for him with grisly claws,atolan clommum. No þy ær in gescod and the warrior seized; yet scathed she nothalan lice; hring utan ymbbearh, his body hale; the breastplate hindered,þæt heo þone fyrdhom ðurhfon ne mihte, as she strove to shatter the sark of war,locene leoðosyrcan/ laþan fingrum. the linked harness, with loathsome hand.Bær þa seo brimwylf/, þa heo to botme com, Then bore this brine-wolf, when bottom she touched,hringa þengel to hofe sinum, the lord of rings to the lair she hauntedswa he ne mihte, no he þæs/ modig wæs, whiles vainly he strove, though his valor held,wæpna gewealdan, ac hine wundra þæs fela weapon to wield against wondrous monstersswencte/ on sunde, sædeor monig that sore beset him; sea-beasts manyhildetuxum heresyrcan bræc, tried with fierce tusks to tear his mail,ehton aglæcan. ða se eorl ongeat and swarmed on the stranger. But soon he markedþæt he in/ niðsele nathwylcum wæs, he was now in some hall, he knew not which,þær him nænig wæter wihte ne sceþede, where water never could work him harm,ne him for hrofsele hrinan ne mehte nor through the roof could reach him everfærgripe flodes; fyrleoht geseah, fangs of the flood. Firelight he saw,blacne leoman, beorhte scinan/. beams of a blaze that brightly shone.Ongeat þa se goda grundwyrgenne, Then the warrior was ware of that wolf-of-the-deep,merewif mihtig; mægenræs forgeaf mere-wife monstrous. For mighty strokehildebille, hond/ sweng/ ne ofteah, he swung his blade, and the blow withheld not.þæt hire on hafelan hringmæl agol Then sang on her head that seemly bladegrædig guðleoð. ða/ se gist onfand its war-song wild. But the warrior foundþæt se beadoleoma bitan nolde, the light-of-battle was loath to bite,aldre sceþðan, ac seo ecg geswac to harm the heart: its hard edge failedðeodne/ æt þearfe; ðolode ær fela the noble at need, yet had known of oldhondgemota, helm oft gescær, strife hand to hand, and had helmets cloven,fæges fyrdhrægl; ða wæs forma sið doomed men's fighting-gear. First time, this,deorum madme, þæt his dom alæg. for the gleaming blade that its glory fell.Eft wæs anræd, nalas elnes læt, Firm still stood, nor failed in valor,mærða gemyndig mæg Hylaces. heedful of high deeds, Hygelac's kinsman;Wearp ða wundenmæl wrættum gebunden flung away fretted sword, featly jewelled,yrre oretta, þæt hit on eorðan læg, the angry earl; on earth it laystið ond stylecg; strenge getruwode, steel-edged and stiff. His strength he trusted,mundgripe mægenes. Swa sceal man don, hand-gripe of might. So man shall doþonne he æt guðe gegan þenceð whenever in war he weens to earn himlongsumne lof, na ymb his lif cearað. lasting fame, nor fears for his life!Gefeng þa be eaxle nalas for fæhðe mearn Seized then by shoulder, shrank not from combat,Guðgeata leod Grendles modor; the Geatish war-prince Grendel's mother.brægd þa beadwe heard, þa he gebolgen wæs, Flung then the fierce one, filled with wrath,feorhgeniðlan, þæt heo on flet gebeah. his deadly foe, that she fell to ground.Heo him eft hraþe andlean/ forgeald Swift on her part she paid him backgrimman grapum ond him togeanes feng; with grisly grasp, and grappled with him.oferwearp/ þa werigmod wigena strengest, Spent with struggle, stumbled the warrior,feþecempa, þæt he on fylle wearð. fiercest of fighting-men, fell adown.Ofsæt þa þone selegyst ond hyre seax/ geteah, On the hall-guest she hurled herself, hent her short sword,brad ond/ brunecg, wolde hire bearn wrecan, broad and brown-edged, the bairn to avenge,angan eaferan. Him on eaxle læg the sole-born son. -- On his shoulder laybreostnet broden; þæt gebearh feore, braided breast-mail, barring death,wið ord ond wið ecge ingang forstod. withstanding entrance of edge or blade.Hæfde ða forsiðod sunu Ecgþeowes Life would have ended for Ecgtheow's son,under gynne grund, Geata cempa, under wide earth for that earl of Geats,nemne him heaðobyrne helpe gefremede, had his armor of war not aided him,herenet hearde, ond halig god battle-net hard, and holy Godgeweold wigsigor; witig drihten, wielded the victory, wisest Maker.rodera rædend, hit on ryht gesced The Lord of Heaven allowed his cause;yðelice, syþðan he eft astod. and easily rose the earl erect.Geseah ða on searwum sigeeadig bil, 'MID the battle-gear saw he a blade triumphant,eald sweord eotenisc, ecgum þyhtig, old-sword of Eotens, with edge of proof,wigena weorðmynd; þæt wæs/ wæpna cyst, warriors' heirloom, weapon unmatched,buton hit wæs mare ðonne ænig mon oðer -- save only 'twas more than other mento beadulace ætberan meahte, to bandy-of-battle could bear at all --god ond geatolic, giganta geweorc. as the giants had wrought it, ready and keen.He gefeng þa fetelhilt, freca Scyldinga Seized then its chain-hilt the Scyldings' chieftain,hreoh ond heorogrim hringmæl gebrægd, bold and battle-grim, brandished the sword,aldres orwena, yrringa sloh, reckless of life, and so wrathfully smoteþæt hire wið halse heard grapode, that it gripped her neck and grasped her hard,banhringas bræc. Bil eal ðurhwod her bone-rings breaking: the blade pierced throughfægne flæschoman; heo on flet gecrong. that fated-one's flesh: to floor she sank.Sweord wæs swatig, secg weorce gefeh. Bloody the blade: he was blithe of his deed.Lixte se leoma, leoht inne stod, Then blazed forth light. 'Twas bright withinefne swa of hefene hadre scineð as when from the sky there shines uncloudedrodores candel. He æfter recede wlat; heaven's candle. The hall he scanned.hwearf þa be wealle, wæpen hafenade By the wall then went he; his weapon raisedheard be hiltum Higelaces ðegn, high by its hilts the Hygelac-thane,yrre ond anræd. Næs seo ecg fracod angry and eager. That edge was not uselesshilderince, ac he hraþe wolde to the warrior now. He wished with speedGrendle forgyldan guðræsa fela Grendel to guerdon for grim raids many,ðara þe he geworhte to Westdenum for the war he waged on Western-Danesoftor micle ðonne on ænne sið, oftener far than an only time,þonne he Hroðgares heorðgeneatas when of Hrothgar's hearth-companionssloh on sweofote, slæpende fræt he slew in slumber, in sleep devoured,folces Denigea fyftyne men fifteen men of the folk of Danes,ond oðer swylc ut offerede, and as many others outward bore,laðlicu lac. He him þæs lean forgeald, his horrible prey. Well paid for thatreþe cempa, to ðæs þe he on ræste geseah the wrathful prince! For now prone he sawguðwerigne Grendel licgan Grendel stretched there, spent with war,aldorleasne, swa him ær gescod spoiled of life, so scathed had left himhild æt Heorote. Hra wide sprong, Heorot's battle. The body sprang farsyþðan he æfter deaðe drepe þrowade, when after death it endured the blow,heorosweng heardne, ond hine þa heafde becearf. sword-stroke savage, that severed its head.Sona þæt gesawon snottre ceorlas, Soon, then, saw the sage companionsþa ðe mid Hroðgare on holm wliton/, who waited with Hrothgar, watching the flood,þæt wæs yðgeblond eal gemenged, that the tossing waters turbid grew,brim blode fah. Blondenfeaxe, blood-stained the mere. Old men together,gomele ymb godne, ongeador spræcon hoary-haired, of the hero spake;þæt hig þæs æðelinges eft ne wendon the warrior would not, they weened, again,þæt he sigehreðig secean come proud of conquest, come to seekmærne þeoden; þa ðæs monige gewearð their mighty master. To many it seemedþæt hine seo brimwylf abroten/ hæfde. the wolf-of-the-waves had won his life.ða com non dæges. Næs ofgeafon The ninth hour came. The noble Scyldingshwate Scyldingas; gewat him ham þonon left the headland; homeward wentgoldwine gumena. Gistas setan/ the gold-friend of men. But the guests sat on,modes seoce ond on mere staredon, stared at the surges, sick in heart,wiston ond ne wendon þæt hie heora winedrihten and wished, yet weened not, their winsome lordselfne gesawon. þa þæt sweord ongan again to see. Now that sword began,æfter heaþoswate hildegicelum, from blood of the fight, in battle-droppings,wigbil wanian. þæt wæs wundra sum, war-blade, to wane: 'twas a wondrous thingþæt hit eal gemealt ise gelicost, that all of it melted as ice is wontðonne forstes bend fæder onlæteð, when frosty fetters the Father loosens,onwindeð wælrapas, se geweald hafað unwinds the wave-bonds, wielding allsæla ond mæla; þæt is soð metod. seasons and times: the true God he!Ne nom he in þæm wicum, Wedergeata leod, Nor took from that dwelling the duke of the Geatsmaðmæhta ma, þeh he þær monige geseah, precious things, though a plenty he saw,buton þone hafelan ond þa hilt somod save only the head and that hilt withalsince fage. Sweord ær gemealt, blazoned with jewels: the blade had melted,forbarn brodenmæl; wæs þæt blod to þæs hat, burned was the bright sword, her blood was so hot,ættren ellorgæst se þær inne/ swealt. so poisoned the hell-sprite who perished within there.Sona wæs on sunde se þe ær æt sæcce gebad Soon he was swimming who safe saw in combatwighryre wraðra, wæter up þurhdeaf. downfall of demons; up-dove through the flood.Wæron yðgebland eal gefælsod, The clashing waters were cleansed now,eacne eardas, þa se ellorgast waste of waves, where the wandering fiendoflet lifdagas ond þas lænan gesceaft. her life-days left and this lapsing world.Com þa to lande lidmanna helm Swam then to strand the sailors'-refuge,swiðmod swymman; sælace gefeah, sturdy-in-spirit, of sea-booty glad,mægenbyrþenne þara þe he him mid hæfde. of burden brave he bore with him.Eodon him þa togeanes, gode þancodon, Went then to greet him, and God they thanked,ðryðlic þegna heap, þeodnes gefegon, the thane-band choice of their chieftain blithe,þæs þe hi hyne gesundne geseon moston. that safe and sound they could see him again.ða wæs of þæm hroran helm ond byrne Soon from the hardy one helmet and armorlungre alysed. Lagu drusade, deftly they doffed: now drowsed the mere,wæter under wolcnum, wældreore fag. water 'neath welkin, with war-blood stained.Ferdon forð þonon feþelastum Forth they fared by the footpaths thence,ferhþum fægne, foldweg mæton, merry at heart the highways measured,cuþe stræte. Cyningbalde men well-known roads. Courageous menfrom þæm holmclife hafelan bæron carried the head from the cliff by the sea,earfoðlice heora æghwæþrum, an arduous task for all the band,felamodigra; feower scoldon the firm in fight, since four were neededon þæm wælstenge weorcum geferian on the shaft-of-slaughter strenuouslyto þæm goldsele Grendles heafod, to bear to the gold-hall Grendel's head.oþðæt semninga to sele comon So presently to the palace therefrome fyrdhwate feowertyne foemen fearless, fourteen Geats,Geata gongan; gumdryhten mid marching came. Their master-of-clanmodig on gemonge meodowongas træd. mighty amid them the meadow-ways trod.ða com in gan ealdor ðegna, Strode then within the sovran thanedædcene mon dome gewurþad, fearless in fight, of fame renowned,hæle hildedeor, Hroðgar gretan. hardy hero, Hrothgar to greet.þa wæs be feaxe on flet boren And next by the hair into hall was borneGrendles heafod, þær guman druncon, Grendel's head, where the henchmen were drinking,egeslic for eorlum ond þære idese mid, an awe to clan and queen alike,wliteseon wrætlic; weras on sawon. a monster of marvel: the men looked on.Beowulf maþelode, bearn Ecgþeowes: BEOWULF spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:--Hwæt. we þe þas sælac, sunu Healfdenes, "Lo, now, this sea-booty, son of Healfdene,leod Scyldinga, lustum brohton Lord of Scyldings, we've lustily brought thee,tires to tacne, þe þu her to locast. sign of glory; thou seest it here.Ic þæt unsofte ealdre gedigde Not lightly did I with my life escape!wigge under wætere, weorc geneþde In war under water this work I essayedearfoðlice; ætrihte wæs with endless effort; and even soguð getwæfed, nymðe mec god scylde. my strength had been lost had the Lord not shielded me.Ne meahte ic æt hilde mid Hruntinge Not a whit could I with Hrunting dowiht gewyrcan, þeah þæt wæpen duge; in work of war, though the weapon is good;ac me geuðe ylda waldend yet a sword the Sovran of Men vouchsafed meþæt ic on wage geseah wlitig hangian to spy on the wall there, in splendor hanging,eald sweord eacen oftost wisode old, gigantic, -- how oft He guideswinigea leasum, þæt ic ðy wæpne gebræd. the friendless wight! -- and I fought with that brand,Ofsloh ða æt þære sæcce, þa me sæl ageald, felling in fight, since fate was with me,huses hyrdas. þa þæt hildebil the house's wardens. That war-sword thenforbarn brogdenmæl, swa þæt blod gesprang, all burned, bright blade, when the blood gushed o'er it,hatost heaþoswata. Ic þæt hilt þanan battle-sweat hot; but the hilt I brought backfeondum ætferede, fyrendæda wræc, from my foes. So avenged I their fiendish deedsdeaðcwealm Denigea, swa hit gedefe wæs. death-fall of Danes, as was due and right.Ic hit þe þonne gehate, þæt þu on Heorote most And this is my hest, that in Heorot nowsorhleas swefan mid þinra secga gedryht safe thou canst sleep with thy soldier band,ond þegna gehwylc þinra leoda, and every thane of all thy folkduguðe ond iogoþe, þæt þu him ondrædan ne þearft, both old and young; no evil fear,þeoden Scyldinga, on þa healfe, Scyldings' lord, from that side again,aldorbealu eorlum, swa þu ær dydest. aught ill for thy earls, as erst thou must!"ða wæs gylden hilt gamelum rince, Then the golden hilt, for that gray-haired leader,harum hildfruman, on hand gyfen, hoary hero, in hand was laid,enta ærgeweorc. hit on æht gehwearf giant-wrought, old. So owned and enjoyed itæfter deofla hryre Denigea frean, after downfall of devils, the Danish lord,wundorsmiþa geweorc, ond þa þas worold ofgeaf wonder-smiths' work, since the world was ridgromheort guma, godes ondsaca, of that grim-souled fiend, the foe of God,morðres scyldig, ond his modor eac, murder-marked, and his mother as well.on geweald gehwearf woroldcyninga Now it passed into power of the people's king,ðæm selestan be sæm tweonum best of all that the oceans boundðara þe on Scedenigge sceattas dælde. who have scattered their gold o'er Scandia's isle.Hroðgar maðelode, hylt sceawode, Hrothgar spake -- the hilt he viewed,ealde lafe, on ðæm wæs or writen heirloom old, where was etched the risefyrngewinnes, syðþan flod ofsloh, of that far-off fight when the floods o'erwhelmed,gifen geotende, giganta cyn raging waves, the race of giantsfrecne geferdon; þæt wæs fremde þeod (fearful their fate!), a folk estrangedecean dryhtne; him þæs endelean from God Eternal: whence guerdon dueþurh wæteres wylm waldend sealde. in that waste of waters the Wielder paid them.Swa wæs on ðæm scennum sciran goldes So on the guard of shining goldþurh runstafas rihte gemearcod, in runic staves it was rightly saidgeseted ond gesæd hwam þæt sweord geworht, for whom the serpent-traced sword was wrought,irena cyst, ærest wære, best of blades, in bygone days,wreoþenhilt ond wyrmfah. ða se wisa spræc and the hilt well wound. -- The wise-one spake,sunu Healfdenes swigedon ealle: son of Healfdene; silent were all:--þæt, la, mæg secgan se þe soð ond riht "Lo, so may he say who sooth and rightfremeð on folce, feor eal gemon, follows 'mid folk, of far times mindful,eald //eðel// weard, þæt ðes eorl wære a land-warden old, that this earl belongsgeboren betera. Blæd is aræred to the better breed! So, borne aloft,geond widwegas, wine min Beowulf/, thy fame must fly, O friend my Beowulf,ðin ofer þeoda gehwylce. Eal þu hit geþyldum healdest, far and wide o'er folksteads many. Firmly thou shalt all maintain,mægen mid modes snyttrum. Ic þe sceal mine gelæstan mighty strength with mood of wisdom. Love of mine will I assure thee,freode, swa wit furðum spræcon. ðu scealt to frofre weorþan as, awhile ago, I promised; thou shalt prove a stay in future,eal langtwidig leodum þinum, in far-off years, to folk of thine,hæleðum to helpe. Ne wearð Heremod swa to the heroes a help. Was not Heremod thuseaforum Ecgwelan, Arscyldingum; to offspring of Ecgwela, Honor-Scyldings,ne geweox he him to willan, ac to wælfealle nor grew for their grace, but for grisly slaughter,ond to deaðcwalum Deniga leodum; for doom of death to the Danishmen.breat bolgenmod beodgeneatas, He slew, wrath-swollen, his shoulder-comrades,eaxlgesteallan, oþþæt he ana hwearf, companions at board! So he passed alone,mære þeoden, mondreamum from. chieftain haughty, from human cheer.ðeah þe hine mihtig god mægenes wynnum, Though him the Maker with might endowed,eafeþum stepte, ofer ealle men delights of power, and uplifted highforð gefremede, hwæþere him on ferhþe greow above all men, yet blood-fierce his mind,breosthord blodreow. Nallas beagas geaf his breast-hoard, grew, no bracelets gave heDenum æfter dome; dreamleas gebad to Danes as was due; he endured all joylessþæt he þæs gewinnes weorc þrowade, strain of struggle and stress of woe,leodbealo longsum. ðu þe lær be þon, long feud with his folk. Here find thy lesson!gumcyste ongit; ic þis gid be þe Of virtue advise thee! This verse I have said for thee,awræc wintrum frod. Wundor is to secganne wise from lapsed winters. Wondrous seemshu mihtig god manna cynne how to sons of men Almighty Godþurh sidne sefan snyttru bryttað, in the strength of His spirit sendeth wisdom,eard ond eorlscipe; he ah ealra geweald. estate, high station: He swayeth all things.Hwilum he on lufan læteð hworfan Whiles He letteth right lustily faremonnes modgeþonc mæran cynnes, the heart of the hero of high-born race, --seleð him on eþle eorþan wynne in seat ancestral assigns him bliss,to healdanne, hleoburh wera, his folk's sure fortress in fee to hold,gedeð him swa gewealdene worolde dælas, puts in his power great parts of the earth,side rice, þæt he his selfa ne mæg empire so ample, that end of itfor/ his unsnyttrum ende geþencean. this wanter-of-wisdom weeneth none.Wunað/ he on wiste; no hine wiht dweleð So he waxes in wealth, nowise can harm himadl/ ne yldo, ne him inwitsorh illness or age; no evil careson sefan sweorceð, ne gesacu ohwær shadow his spirit; no sword-hate threatensecghete eoweð, ac him eal worold from ever an enemy: all the worldwendeð on willan he þæt wyrse ne con, wends at his will, no worse he knoweth,oðþæt him on innan oferhygda dæl till all within him obstinate prideweaxeð ond wridað. þonne se weard swefeð, waxes and wakes while the warden slumbers,sawele hyrde; bið se slæp to fæst, the spirit's sentry; sleep is too fastbisgum gebunden, bona swiðe neah, which masters his might, and the murderer nears,se þe of flanbogan fyrenum sceoteð. stealthily shooting the shafts from his bow!þonne bið on hreþre under helm drepen "UNDER harness his heart then is hit indeedbiteran stræle him bebeorgan ne con, by sharpest shafts; and no shelter availswom wundorbebodum wergan gastes; from foul behest of the hellish fiend.þinceð him to lytel þæt he lange heold, Him seems too little what long he possessed.gytsað gromhydig, nallas on gylp seleð Greedy and grim, no golden ringsfædde beagas, ond he þa forðgesceaft he gives for his pride; the promised futureforgyteð ond forgymeð, þæs þe him ær god sealde, forgets he and spurns, with all God has sent him,wuldres waldend, weorðmynda dæl. Wonder-Wielder, of wealth and fame.Hit on endestæf eft gelimpeð Yet in the end it ever comesþæt se lichoma læne/ gedreoseð, that the frame of the body fragile yields,fæge gefealleð; fehð oþer to, fated falls; and there follows anotherse þe unmurnlice madmas dæleþ, who joyously the jewels divides,eorles ærgestreon, egesan ne gymeð. the royal riches, nor recks of his forebear.Bebeorh þe ðone bealonið, Beowulf leofa, Ban, then, such baleful thoughts, Beowulf dearest,secg betsta, ond þe þæt selre geceos, best of men, and the better part choose,ece rædas; oferhyda ne gym, profit eternal; and temper thy pride,mære cempa. Nu is þines mægnes blæd warrior famous! The flower of thy mightane hwile. Eft sona bið lasts now a while: but erelong it shall beþæt þec adl oððe ecg eafoþes getwæfeð, that sickness or sword thy strength shall minish,oððe fyres feng, oððe flodes wylm, or fang of fire, or flooding billow,oððe gripe meces, oððe gares fliht, or bite of blade, or brandished spear,oððe atol yldo; oððe eagena bearhtm or odious age; or the eyes' clear beamforsiteð ond forsworceð; semninga bið wax dull and darken: Death even theeþæt ðec, dryhtguma, deað oferswyðeð. in haste shall o'erwhelm, thou hero of war!Swa ic Hringdena hund missera So the Ring-Danes these half-years a hundred I ruled,weold under wolcnum ond hig wigge beleac/ wielded 'neath welkin, and warded them bravelymanigum mægþa geond þysne middangeard/, from mighty-ones many o'er middle-earth,æscum ond ecgum, þæt ic me ænigne from spear and sword, till it seemed for meunder swegles begong gesacan ne tealde. no foe could be found under fold of the sky.Hwæt, me þæs on eþle edwenden/ cwom, Lo, sudden the shift! To me seated securegyrn æfter gomene, seoþðan Grendel wearð, came grief for joy when Grendel beganealdgewinna, ingenga min; to harry my home, the hellish foe;ic þære socne singales wæg for those ruthless raids, unresting I sufferedmodceare micle. þæs sig metode þanc, heart-sorrow heavy. Heaven be thanked,ecean dryhtne, þæs ðe ic on aldre gebad Lord Eternal, for life extendedþæt ic on þone hafelan heorodreorigne that I on this head all hewn and bloody,ofer ealdgewin eagum starige. after long evil, with eyes may gaze!Ga nu to setle, symbelwynne dreoh -- Go to the bench now! Be glad at banquet,wigge weorþad; unc sceal worn fela warrior worthy! A wealth of treasuremaþma gemænra, siþðan morgen bið. at dawn of day, be dealt between us!"Geat wæs glædmod, geong sona to Glad was the Geats' lord, going betimessetles neosan, swa se snottra heht. to seek his seat, as the Sage commanded.þa wæs eft swa ær ellenrofum Afresh, as before, for the famed-in-battle,fletsittendum fægere gereorded for the band of the hall, was a banquet dightniowan stefne. Nihthelm geswearc nobly anew. The Night-Helm darkeneddeorc ofer dryhtgumum. Duguð eal aras. dusk o'er the drinkers. The doughty ones rose:Wolde blondenfeax beddes neosan, for the hoary-headed would hasten to rest,gamela Scylding. Geat unigmetes wel, aged Scylding; and eager the Geat,rofne randwigan, restan lyste; shield-fighter sturdy, for sleeping yearned.sona him seleþegn siðes wergum, Him wander-weary, warrior-guestfeorrancundum, forð wisade, from far, a hall-thane heralded forth,se for andrysnum ealle beweotede/ who by custom courtly cared for allþegnes þearfe, swylce þy dogore needs of a thane as in those old daysheaþoliðende habban scoldon. warrior-wanderers wont to have.Reste hine þa rumheort; reced hliuade So slumbered the stout-heart. Stately the hallgeap ond goldfah; gæst inne swæf rose gabled and gilt where the guest slept onoþþæt hrefn blaca heofones wynne till a raven black the rapture-of-heavenbliðheort bodode. ða/ com/ beorht scacan blithe-heart boded. Bright came flyingscaþan/ onetton, shine after shadow. The swordsmen hastened,wæron æþelingas eft to leodum athelings all were eager homewardfuse to farenne/; wolde feor þanon forth to fare; and far from thencecuma collenferhð/ ceoles neosan. the great-hearted guest would guide his keel.Heht þa se hearda Hrunting beran Bade then the hardy-one Hrunting be broughtsunu Ecglafes, heht his sweord niman, to the son of Ecglaf, the sword bade him take,leoflic iren; sægde him þæs leanes þanc, excellent iron, and uttered his thanks for it,cwæð, he þone guðwine godne tealde, quoth that he counted it keen in battle,wigcræftigne, nales wordum log "war-friend" winsome: with words he slandered notmeces ecge; þæt wæs modig secg. edge of the blade: 'twas a big-hearted man!Ond þa siðfrome, searwum gearwe Now eager for parting and armed at pointwigend wæron; eode weorð Denum warriors waited, while went to his hostæþeling to yppan, þær se oþer wæs, that Darling of Danes. The doughty athelinghæle hildedeor Hroðgar grette. to high-seat hastened and Hrothgar greeted.Beowulf maþelode, bearn Ecgþeowes: BEOWULF spake, bairn of Ecgtheow:--Nu we sæliðend secgan wyllað, "Lo, we seafarers say our will,feorran cumene, þæt we fundiaþ far-come men, that we fain would seekHigelac secan. Wæron her tela Hygelac now. We here have foundwillum bewenede; þu us wel dohtest. hosts to our heart: thou hast harbored us well.Gif ic þonne on eorþan owihte mæg If ever on earth I am able to win meþinre modlufan maran tilian, more of thy love, O lord of men,gumena dryhten, ðonne ic gyt dyde, aught anew, than I now have done,guðgeweorca, ic beo gearo sona. for work of war I am willing still!Gif ic þæt gefricge ofer floda begang, If it come to me ever across the seasþæt þec ymbsittend egesan þywað, that neighbor foemen annoy and fright thee, --swa þec hetende hwilum dydon, as they that hate thee erewhile have used, --ic ðe þusenda þegna bringe, thousands then of thanes I shall bring,hæleþa to helpe. Ic on Higelac/ wat, heroes to help thee. Of Hygelac I know,Geata dryhten, þeah ðe he geong sy, ward of his folk, that, though few his years,folces hyrde, þæt he mec fremman wile the lord of the Geats will give me aidwordum/ ond worcum, þæt ic þe wel herige by word and by work, that well I may serve thee,ond þe to geoce garholt bere, wielding the war-wood to win thy triumphmægenes fultum, þær ðe bið manna þearf. and lending thee might when thou lackest men.Gif him þonne Hreþric/ to hofum Geata If thy Hrethric should come to court of Geats,geþingeð/, þeodnes bearn, he mæg þær fela a sovran's son, he will surely therefreonda findan; feorcyþðe beoð find his friends. A far-off landselran gesohte þæm þe him selfa deah. each man should visit who vaunts him brave."Hroðgar maþelode him on ondsware: Him then answering, Hrothgar spake:--þe þa wordcwydas wigtig drihten "These words of thine the wisest Godon sefan sende; ne hyrde ic snotorlicor sent to thy soul! No sager counselon swa geongum feore guman þingian. from so young in years e'er yet have I heard.þu eart mægenes strang ond on mode frod, Thou art strong of main and in mind art wary,wis wordcwida. Wen ic talige, art wise in words! I ween indeedgif þæt gegangeð, þæt ðe gar nymeð, if ever it hap that Hrethel's heirhild heorugrimme, Hreþles eaferan, by spear be seized, by sword-grim battle,adl oþðe iren ealdor ðinne, by illness or iron, thine elder and lord,folces hyrde, ond þu þin feorh hafast, people's leader, -- and life be thine, --þæt þe Sægeatas selran næbben no seemlier man will the Sea-Geats findto geceosenne cyning ænigne, at all to choose for their chief and king,hordweard hæleþa, gyf/ þu healdan wylt for hoard-guard of heroes, if hold thou wiltmaga rice. Me þin modsefa/ thy kinsman's kingdom! Thy keen mind pleases melicað leng swa wel, leofa Beowulf/. the longer the better, Beowulf loved!Hafast þu gefered þæt þam folcum sceal, Thou hast brought it about that both our peoples,Geata leodum ond Gardenum, sons of the Geat and Spear-Dane folk,sib gemæne/, ond sacu restan, shall have mutual peace, and from murderous strife,inwitniþas, þe hie ær drugon, such as once they waged, from war refrain.wesan, þenden ic wealde widan rices, Long as I rule this realm so wide,maþmas gemæne, manig/ oþerne let our hoards be common, let heroes with goldgodum gegretan ofer ganotes bæð; each other greet o'er the gannet's-bath,sceal hringnaca ofer heafu/ bringan and the ringed-prow bear o'er rolling waveslac ond luftacen. Ic þa leode wat tokens of love. I trow my landfolkge wið feond ge wið freond fæste geworhte, towards friend and foe are firmly joined,æghwæs untæle ealde wisan. and honor they keep in the olden way."ða git him eorla hleo inne gesealde, To him in the hall, then, Healfdene's sonmago Healfdenes, maþmas XII; gave treasures twelve, and the trust-of-earlshet hine/ mid þæm lacum leode swæse bade him fare with the gifts to his folk beloved,secean on gesyntum, snude eft cuman. hale to his home, and in haste return.Gecyste þa cyning æþelum god, Then kissed the king of kin renowned,þeoden Scyldinga, ðegn betstan Scyldings' chieftain, that choicest thane,ond be healse genam; hruron him tearas, and fell on his neck. Fast flowed the tearsblondenfeaxum. Him wæs bega wen, of the hoary-headed. Heavy with winters,ealdum infrodum, oþres swiðor, he had chances twain, but he clung to this, --þæt hie/ seoððan/ no/ geseon moston, that each should look on the other again,modige on meþle. Wæs/ him se man to þon leof and hear him in hall. Was this hero so dear to him.þæt he þone breostwylm forberan ne mehte, his breast's wild billows he banned in vain;ac him on hreþre hygebendum fæst safe in his soul a secret longing,æfter deorum men dyrne langað locked in his mind, for that loved manbeorn wið blode. Him Beowulf þanan, burned in his blood. Then Beowulf strode,guðrinc goldwlanc, græsmoldan træd glad of his gold-gifts, the grass-plot o'er,since hremig; sægenga bad warrior blithe. The wave-roamer bodeagendfrean/, se þe/ on ancre rad. riding at anchor, its owner awaiting.þa wæs on gange gifu Hroðgares As they hastened onward, Hrothgar's giftoft geæhted; þæt wæs an cyning, they lauded at length. -- 'Twas a lord unpeered,æghwæs orleahtre, oþþæt hine yldo benam every way blameless, till age had brokenmægenes wynnum, se þe oft manegum scod. -- it spareth no mortal -- his splendid might.Cwom þa to flode felamodigra, CAME now to ocean the ever-courageoushægstealdra heap/, hringnet bæron, hardy henchmen, their harness bearing,locene leoðosyrcan. Landweard onfand woven war-sarks. The warden marked,eftsið eorla, swa he ær dyde; trusty as ever, the earl's he mid hearme of hliðes nosan From the height of the hill no hostile wordsgæstas/ grette, ac him togeanes rad, reached the guests as he rode to greet them;cwæð/ þæt wilcuman Wedera leodum but "Welcome!" he called to that Weder clanscaþan/ scirhame to scipe foron. as the sheen-mailed spoilers to ship marched on.þa wæs on sande sægeap naca Then on the strand, with steeds and treasurehladen herewædum, hringedstefna, and armor their roomy and ring-dight shipmearum ond maðmum; mæst hlifade was heavily laden: high its mastofer Hroðgares hordgestreonum. rose over Hrothgar's hoarded gems.He þæm batwearde bunden golde A sword to the boat-guard Beowulf gave,swurd gesealde, þæt he syðþan wæs mounted with gold; on the mead-bench sinceon meodubence maþme/ þy weorþra/, he was better esteemed, that blade possessing,yrfelafe. Gewat him on naca/ heirloom old. -- Their ocean-keel boarding,drefan deop wæter, Dena land ofgeaf. they drove through the deep, and Daneland left.þa wæs be mæste merehrægla sum, A sea-cloth was set, a sail with ropes,segl sale fæst; sundwudu þunede. firm to the mast; the flood-timbers moaned;No þær wegflotan wind ofer yðum nor did wind over billows that wave-swimmer blowsiðes getwæfde; sægenga for, across from her course. The craft sped on,fleat famigheals forð ofer yðe, foam-necked it floated forth o'er the waves,bundenstefna ofer brimstreamas, keel firm-bound over briny currents,þæt hie Geata clifu ongitan meahton, till they got them sight of the Geatish cliffs,cuþe næssas. Ceol up geþrang home-known headlands. High the boat,lyftgeswenced, on lande stod. stirred by winds, on the strand updrove.Hraþe wæs æt holme hyðweard geara Helpful at haven the harbor-guard stood,se þe ær lange tid leofra manna who long already for loved companionsfus æt faroðe feor wlatode; by the water had waited and watched afar.sælde to sande sidfæþme scip, He bound to the beach the broad-bosomed shiponcerbendum/ fæst, þy læs hym yþa ðrym with anchor-bands, lest ocean-billowswudu wynsuman forwrecan meahte. that trusty timber should tear away.Het þa up beran æþelinga gestreon, Then Beowulf bade them bear the treasure,frætwe ond fætgold; næs him feor þanon gold and jewels; no journey farto gesecanne sinces bryttan, was it thence to go to the giver of rings,Higelac Hreþling, þær æt ham wunað Hygelac Hrethling: at home he dweltselfa mid gesiðum sæwealle neah. by the sea-wall close, himself and clan.Bold wæs betlic, bregorof cyning, Haughty that house, a hero the king,heah/ in/ healle, Hygd swiðe geong, high the hall, and Hygd right young,wis, welþungen, þeah ðe wintra lyt wise and wary, though winters fewunder burhlocan gebiden hæbbe, in those fortress walls she had found a home,Hæreþes dohtor; næs hio hnah swa þeah, Haereth's daughter. Nor humble her ways,ne to gneað gifa Geata leodum, nor grudged she gifts to the Geatish men,maþmgestreona. Mod þryðo wæg, of precious treasure. Not Thryth's pride showed she,fremu folces cwen, firen ondrysne. folk-queen famed, or that fell deceit.Nænig þæt dorste deor geneþan Was none so daring that durst make boldswæsra gesiða, nefne sinfrea, (save her lord alone) of the liegemen dearþæt hire an dæges eagum starede, that lady full in the face to look,ac him wælbende weotode tealde but forged fetters he found his lot,handgewriþene; hraþe seoþðan wæs bonds of death! And brief the respite;æfter mundgripe mece geþinged, soon as they seized him, his sword-doom was spoken,þæt hit sceadenmæl scyran moste, and the burnished blade a baleful murdercwealmbealu cyðan. Ne bið swylc cwenlic þeaw proclaimed and closed. No queenly wayidese to efnanne, þeah ðe hio ænlicu sy, for woman to practise, though peerless she,þætte freoðuwebbe feores onsæce that the weaver-of-peace from warrior dearæfter ligetorne leofne mannan. by wrath and lying his life should reave!Huru þæt onhohsnode/ Hemminges/ mæg; But Hemming's kinsman hindered this. --ealodrincende oðer sædan, For over their ale men also toldþæt hio leodbealewa læs gefremede, that of these folk-horrors fewer she wrought,inwitniða, syððan/ ærest wearð onslaughts of evil, after she went,gyfen goldhroden geongum cempan, gold-decked bride, to the brave young prince,æðelum diore, syððan hio Offan flet atheling haughty, and Offa's hallofer fealone flod be fæder lare o'er the fallow flood at her father's biddingsiðe gesohte. ðær hio syððan well safely sought, where since she prospered,in gumstole, gode, mære, royal, throned, rich in goods,lifgesceafta lifigende breac, fain of the fair life fate had sent her,hiold heahlufan wið hæleþa brego, and leal in love to the lord of warriors.ealles moncynnes mine gefræge He, of all heroes I heard of everþone/ selestan bi sæm tweonum, from sea to sea, of the sons of earth,eormencynnes. Forðam Offa wæs most excellent seemed. Hence Offa was praisedgeofum ond guðum, garcene man, for his fighting and feeing by far-off men,wide/ geweorðod/, wisdome heold the spear-bold warrior; wisely he ruledeðel sinne; þonon Eomer/ woc over his empire. Eomer woke to him,hæleðum to helpe, Hemminges/ mæg, help of heroes, Hemming's kinsman,nefa Garmundes, niða cræftig. Grandson of Garmund, grim in war.Gewat him ða se hearda mid his hondscole HASTENED the hardy one, henchmen with him,sylf æfter sande sæwong tredan, sandy strand of the sea to treadwide waroðas. Woruldcandel scan, and widespread ways. The world's great candle,sigel suðan fus. Hi sið drugon, sun shone from south. They strode alongelne geeodon, to ðæs ðe eorla hleo, with sturdy steps to the spot they knewbonan Ongenþeoes burgum in innan, where the battle-king young, his burg within,geongne guðcyning godne gefrunon slayer of Ongentheow, shared the rings,hringas dælan. Higelace wæs shelter-of-heroes. To Hygelacsið Beowulfes snude gecyðed, Beowulf's coming was quickly told, --þæt ðær on worðig wigendra hleo, that there in the court the clansmen's refuge,lindgestealla, lifigende cwom, the shield-companion sound and alive,heaðolaces hal to hofe gongan. hale from the hero-play homeward strode.Hraðe wæs gerymed, swa se rica bebead, With haste in the hall, by highest order,feðegestum flet innanweard. room for the rovers was readily made.Gesæt þa wið sylfne se ða sæcce genæs, By his sovran he sat, come safe from battle,mæg wið mæge, syððan/ mandryhten kinsman by kinsman. His kindly lordþurh hleoðorcwyde holdne gegrette, he first had greeted in gracious form,meaglum wordum. Meoduscencum with manly words. The mead dispensing,hwearf geond þæt healreced Hæreðes dohtor, came through the high hall Haereth's daughter,lufode ða leode, liðwæge bær winsome to warriors, wine-cup borehæleðum/ to handa. Higelac ongan to the hands of the heroes. Hygelac thensinne geseldan in sele þam hean his comrade fairly with question pliedfægre fricgcean hyne fyrwet bræc, in the lofty hall, sore longing to knowhwylce Sægeata siðas wæron: what manner of sojourn the Sea-Geats made.Hu lomp eow on lade, leofa Biowulf, "What came of thy quest, my kinsman Beowulf,þa ðu færinga feorr gehogodest when thy yearnings suddenly swept thee yondersæcce secean ofer sealt wæter, battle to seek o'er the briny sea,hilde to Hiorote? Ac ðu Hroðgare combat in Heorot? Hrothgar couldst thouwidcuðne/ wean wihte gebettest, aid at all, the honored chief,mærum ðeodne? Ic ðæs modceare in his wide-known woes? With waves of caresorhwylmum seað, siðe ne truwode my sad heart seethed; I sore mistrustedleofes mannes; ic ðe lange bæd my loved one's venture: long I begged theeþæt ðu þone wælgæst wihte ne grette, by no means to seek that slaughtering monster,lete Suðdene sylfe geweorðan but suffer the South-Danes to settle their feudguðe wið Grendel. Gode ic þanc secge themselves with Grendel. Now God be thankedþæs ðe ic ðe gesundne geseon moste. that safe and sound I can see thee now!"Biowulf maðelode, bearn Ecgðioes: Beowulf spake, the bairn of Ecgtheow:--þæt is undyrne, dryhten Higelac/, "'Tis known and unhidden, Hygelac Lord,micel/ gemeting, monegum fira, to many men, that meeting of ours,hwylc/ orleghwil/ uncer Grendles struggle grim between Grendel and me,wearð on ðam/ wange, þær he worna fela which we fought on the field where full too manySigescyldingum/ sorge gefremede, sorrows he wrought for the Scylding-Victors,yrmðe/ to aldre. Ic ðæt eall gewræc, evils unending. These all I avenged.swa begylpan/ ne þearf Grendeles maga No boast can be from breed of Grendel,ænig/ ofer eorðan uhthlem þone, any on earth, for that uproar at dawn,se ðe/ lengest leofað laðan cynnes, from the longest-lived of the loathsome racefacne/ bifongen. Ic ðær furðum cwom in fleshly fold! -- But first I wentto ðam hringsele Hroðgar gretan; Hrothgar to greet in the hall of gifts,sona me se mæra mago Healfdenes, where Healfdene's kinsman high-renowned,syððan he modsefan minne cuðe, soon as my purpose was plain to him,wið his sylfes sunu setl getæhte. assigned me a seat by his son and heir.Weorod wæs on wynne; ne seah ic widan feorh The liegemen were lusty; my life-days neverunder heofones hwealf healsittendra such merry men over mead in hallmedudream maran. Hwilum mæru cwen, have I heard under heaven! The high-born queen,friðusibb folca, flet eall geondhwearf, people's peace-bringer, passed through the hall,bædde byre geonge; oft hio beahwriðan cheered the young clansmen, clasps of gold,secge sealde/, ær hie to setle geong. ere she sought her seat, to sundry gave.Hwilum for duguðe/ dohtor Hroðgares Oft to the heroes Hrothgar's daughter,eorlum on/ ende ealuwæge bær; to earls in turn, the ale-cup tendered, --þa ic Freaware fletsittende/ she whom I heard these hall-companionsnemnan hyrde, þær hio nægled/ sinc Freawaru name, when fretted goldhæleðum sealde. Sio gehaten is/, she proffered the warriors. Promised is she,geong, goldhroden, gladum suna Frodan; gold-decked maid, to the glad son of Froda.hafað/ þæs geworden wine Scyldinga, Sage this seems to the Scylding's-friend,rices hyrde, ond þæt ræd talað, kingdom's-keeper: he counts it wiseþæt he mid ðy wife wælfæhða dæl, the woman to wed so and ward off feud,sæcca gesette. Oft seldan hwær store of slaughter. But seldom everæfter leodhryre lytle hwile when men are slain, does the murder-spear sinkbongar bugeð, þeah seo bryd duge. but briefest while, though the bride be fair!Mæg þæs þonne ofþyncan ðeodne/ Heaðobeardna "Nor haply will like it the Heathobard lord,ond þegna gehwam þara leoda, and as little each of his liegemen all,þonne he mid fæmnan on flett gæð, when a thane of the Danes, in that doughty throng,dryhtbearn Dena, duguða biwenede. goes with the lady along their hall,on him gladiað gomelra lafe, and on him the old-time heirlooms glistenheard ond hringmæl Heaðabeardna/ gestreon hard and ring-decked, Heathobard's treasure,þenden hie ðam wæpnum wealdan moston, weapons that once they wielded fairoððæt hie forlæddan to ðam lindplegan until they lost at the linden-playswæse gesiðas ond hyra sylfra feorh. liegeman leal and their lives as well.þonne cwið æt beore se ðe beah gesyhð/, Then, over the ale, on this heirloom gazing,eald æscwiga, se ðe eall geman/, some ash-wielder old who has all in mindgarcwealm gumena him bið grim sefa/, that spear-death of men, -- he is stern of mood,onginneð geomormod geongum cempan heavy at heart, -- in the hero youngþurh hreðra gehygd higes cunnian, tests the temper and tries the soulwigbealu weccean, ond þæt word acwyð: and war-hate wakens, with words like these:--Meaht ðu, min wine, mece gecnawan _Canst thou not, comrade, ken that swordþone þin fæder to gefeohte bær which to the fray thy father carriedunder heregriman hindeman siðe, in his final feud, 'neath the fighting-mask,dyre iren, þær hyne Dene slogon, dearest of blades, when the Danish slew himweoldon wælstowe, syððan/ Wiðergyld læg, and wielded the war-place on Withergild's fall,æfter hæleþa hryre, hwate Scyldungas? after havoc of heroes, those hardy Scyldings?Nu her þara banena byre nathwylces Now, the son of a certain slaughtering Dane,frætwum hremig on flet gæð, proud of his treasure, paces this hall,morðres gylpeð, ond þone maðþum byreð, joys in the killing, and carries the jewelþone þe ðu mid rihte rædan sceoldest. that rightfully ought to be owned by thee!_Manað swa ond myndgað mæla gehwylce Thus he urges and eggs him all the timesarum wordum, oððæt sæl cymeð with keenest words, till occasion offersþæt se fæmnan þegn fore fæder dædum that Freawaru's thane, for his father's deed,æfter billes bite blodfag swefeð, after bite of brand in his blood must slumber,ealdres scyldig; him se oðer þonan losing his life; but that liegeman flieslosað lifigende/, con him land geare. living away, for the land he kens.þonne bioð/ abrocene/ on ba healfe And thus be broken on both their sidesaðsweord eorla; syððan/ Ingelde oaths of the earls, when Ingeld's breastweallað wælniðas, ond him wiflufan wells with war-hate, and wife-love nowæfter cearwælmum colran weorðað. after the care-billows cooler grows.þy ic Heaðobeardna/ hyldo ne telge, "So I hold not high the Heathobards' faithdryhtsibbe dæl Denum unfæcne, due to the Danes, or their during lovefreondscipe fæstne. Ic sceal forð sprecan and pact of peace. -- But I pass from that,gen ymbe Grendel, þæt ðu geare cunne, turning to Grendel, O giver-of-treasure,sinces brytta, to hwan syððan wearð and saying in full how the fight resulted,hondræs hæleða. Syððan heofones gim hand-fray of heroes. When heaven's jewelglad ofer grundas, gæst yrre cwom, had fled o'er far fields, that fierce sprite came,eatol, æfengrom, user neosan, night-foe savage, to seek us outðær we gesunde sæl weardodon. where safe and sound we sentried the hall.þær wæs Hondscio hild/ onsæge, To Hondscio then was that harassing deadly,feorhbealu fægum; he fyrmest læg, his fall there was fated. He first was slain,gyrded cempa; him Grendel wearð, girded warrior. Grendel on himmærum maguþegne/ to muðbonan, turned murderous mouth, on our mighty kinsman,leofes mannes lic eall forswealg. and all of the brave man's body devoured.No ðy ær ut ða gen idelhende Yet none the earlier, empty-handed,bona blodigtoð, bealewa gemyndig, would the bloody-toothed murderer, mindful of bale,of ðam goldsele gongan wolde, outward go from the gold-decked hall:ac he mægnes rof min costode, but me he attacked in his terror of might,grapode gearofolm. Glof hangode with greedy hand grasped me. A glove hung by himsid ond syllic, searobendum fæst; wide and wondrous, wound with bands;sio/ wæs orðoncum eall gegyrwed and in artful wise it all was wrought,deofles cræftum ond dracan fellum. by devilish craft, of dragon-skins.He mec þær on innan unsynnigne, Me therein, an innocent man,dior dædfruma, gedon wolde the fiendish foe was fain to thrustmanigra sumne; hyt ne mihte swa, with many another. He might not so,syððan ic on yrre uppriht astod. when I all angrily upright stood.To lang ys to reccenne hu ic/ ðam/ leodsceaðan 'Twere long to relate how that land-destroyeryfla gehwylces ondlean forgeald; I paid in kind for his cruel deeds;þær ic, þeoden min, þine leode yet there, my prince, this people of thineweorðode weorcum. He on weg losade, got fame by my fighting. He fled away,lytle hwile lifwynna breac/; and a little space his life preserved;hwæþre him sio swiðre swaðe weardade but there staid behind him his stronger handhand on Hiorte, ond he hean ðonan left in Heorot; heartsick thencemodes geomor meregrund gefeoll. on the floor of the ocean that outcast fell.Me þone wælræs wine Scildunga Me for this struggle the Scyldings'-friendfættan golde fela leanode, paid in plenty with plates of gold,manegum maðmum, syððan mergen com with many a treasure, when morn had comeond we to symble geseten hæfdon. and we all at the banquet-board sat down.þær wæs gidd ond gleo. Gomela Scilding, Then was song and glee. The gray-haired Scylding,felafricgende, feorran rehte/; much tested, told of the times of yore.hwilum hildedeor hearpan wynne, Whiles the hero his harp bestirred,gomenwudu grette, hwilum gyd awræc wood-of-delight; now lays he chantedsoð ond sarlic, hwilum syllic spell of sooth and sadness, or said arightrehte æfter rihte rumheort cyning. legends of wonder, the wide-hearted king;Hwilum eft ongan, eldo gebunden, or for years of his youth he would yearn at times,gomel guðwiga gioguðe/ cwiðan, for strength of old struggles, now stricken with age,hildestrengo; hreðer inne/ weoll, hoary hero: his heart surged fullþonne he wintrum frod worn gemunde. when, wise with winters, he wailed their flight.Swa we þær inne ondlangne dæg/ Thus in the hall the whole of that dayniode naman, oððæt niht becwom at ease we feasted, till fell o'er earthoðer to yldum. þa wæs eft hraðe another night. Anon full readygearo gyrnwræce Grendeles modor, in greed of vengeance, Grendel's mothersiðode sorhfull; sunu deað fornam, set forth all doleful. Dead was her sonwighete Wedra. Wif unhyre through war-hate of Weders; now, woman monstroushyre bearn gewræc, beorn acwealde with fury fell a foeman she slew,ellenlice; þær wæs æschere, avenged her offspring. From Aeschere old,frodan fyrnwitan, feorh uðgenge. loyal councillor, life was gone;Noðer hy hine ne moston, syððan mergen cwom, nor might they e'en, when morning broke,deaðwerigne, Denia leode, those Danish people, their death-done comradebronde forbærnan, ne on bæl/ hladan burn with brands, on balefire layleofne mannan; hio þæt lic ætbær the man they mourned. Under mountain streamfeondes fæðmum/ under/ firgenstream. she had carried the corpse with cruel hands.þæt wæs Hroðgare/ hreowa tornost For Hrothgar that was the heaviest sorrowþara þe leodfruman lange begeate. of all that had laden the lord of his folk.þa se ðeoden mec ðine life The leader then, by thy life, besought mehealsode hreohmod, þæt ic on holma geþring (sad was his soul) in the sea-waves' coileorlscipe efnde, ealdre geneðde, to play the hero and hazard my beingmærðo fremede; he me mede gehet. for glory of prowess: my guerdon he pledged.Ic ða ðæs wælmes, þe is wide cuð, I then in the waters -- 'tis widely known --grimne/ gryrelicne grundhyrde fond; that sea-floor-guardian savage found.þær unc hwile wæs hand gemæne, Hand-to-hand there a while we struggled;holm heolfre weoll, ond ic heafde becearf billows welled blood; in the briny hallin ðam guðsele/ Grendeles modor her head I hewed with a hardy bladeeacnum ecgum, unsofte þonan from Grendel's mother, -- and gained my life,feorh oðferede. Næs ic fæge þa gyt, though not without danger. My doom was not me eorla hleo eft gesealde Then the haven-of-heroes, Healfdene's son,maðma menigeo, maga Healfdenes. gave me in guerdon great gifts of price.Swa se ðeodkyning þeawum lyfde. "So held this king to the customs old,Nealles ic ðam leanum forloren hæfde, that I wanted for nought in the wage I gained,mægnes mede, ac he me maðmas/ geaf, the meed of my might; he made me gifts,sunu Healfdenes, on minne/ sylfes dom; Healfdene's heir, for my own disposal.ða ic ðe, beorncyning, bringan wylle, Now to thee, my prince, I proffer them all,estum geywan. Gen is eall æt ðe gladly give them. Thy grace alonelissa gelong; ic lyt hafo can find me favor. Few indeedheafodmaga nefne, Hygelac, ðec. have I of kinsmen, save, Hygelac, thee!"Het ða in beran eaforheafodsegn, Then he bade them bear him the boar-head standard,heaðosteapne helm, hare byrnan, the battle-helm high, and breastplate gray,guðsweord geatolic, gyd æfter wræc: the splendid sword; then spake in form:--Me ðis hildesceorp Hroðgar sealde, "Me this war-gear the wise old prince,snotra fengel, sume worde het Hrothgar, gave, and his hest he added,þæt ic his ærest ðe est gesægde. that its story be straightway said to thee. --cwæð þæt hyt hæfde Hiorogar cyning, A while it was held by Heorogar king,leod Scyldunga lange hwile; for long time lord of the land of Scyldings;no ðy ær suna sinum syllan wolde, yet not to his son the sovran left it,hwatum Heorowearde, þeah he him hold wære, to daring Heoroweard, -- dear as he was to him,breostgewædu. Bruc ealles well. his harness of battle. -- Well hold thou it all!"Hyrde ic þæt þam frætwum feower mearas And I heard that soon passed o'er the path of this treasure,lungre, gelice, last weardode, all apple-fallow, four good steeds,æppelfealuwe; he him est geteah each like the others, arms and horsesmeara ond maðma. Swa sceal mæg don, he gave to the king. So should kinsmen be,nealles inwitnet oðrum/ bregdon not weave one another the net of wiles,dyrnum cræfte, deað renian/ or with deep-hid treachery death contrivehondgesteallan. Hygelace wæs, for neighbor and comrade. His nephew was everniða/ heardum, nefa swyðe hold, by hardy Hygelac held full dear,ond gehwæðer/ oðrum hroþra gemyndig. and each kept watch o'er the other's weal.Hyrde ic þæt he ðone healsbeah Hygde gesealde, I heard, too, the necklace to Hygd he presented,wrætlicne wundurmaððum, ðone þe him Wealhðeo geaf, wonder-wrought treasure, which Wealhtheow gave himðeodnes/ dohtor, þrio wicg somod sovran's daughter: three steeds he added,swancor ond sadolbeorht; hyre syððan wæs slender and saddle-gay. Since such giftæfter/ beahðege breost/ geweorðod. the gem gleamed bright on the breast of the queen.Swa bealdode/ bearn Ecgðeowes, Thus showed his strain the son of Ecgtheowguma guðum cuð, godum dædum, as a man remarked for mighty deedsdreah æfter dome, nealles druncne slog and acts of honor. At ale he slew notheorðgeneatas; næs him hreoh sefa, comrade or kin; nor cruel his mood,ac he mancynnes mæste cræfte though of sons of earth his strength was greatest,ginfæstan gife, þe him god sealde, a glorious gift that God had sentheold hildedeor. Hean wæs lange, the splendid leader. Long was he spurned,swa hyne Geata bearn godne ne tealdon, and worthless by Geatish warriors held;ne hyne on medobence micles wyrðne him at mead the master-of-clansdrihten/ Wedera gedon wolde; failed full oft to favor at all.swyðe wendon/ þæt he sleac wære, Slack and shiftless the strong men deemed him,æðeling unfrom. Edwenden cwom profitless prince; but payment came,tireadigum menn torna gehwylces. to the warrior honored, for all his woes. --Het ða eorla hleo in gefetian, Then the bulwark-of-earls bade bring within,heaðorof cyning, Hreðles lafe hardy chieftain, Hrethel's heirloomgolde gegyrede; næs mid/ Geatum ða garnished with gold: no Geat e'er knewsincmaðþum selra on/ sweordes had; in shape of a sword a statelier prize.þæt he on Biowulfes bearm alegde The brand he laid in Beowulf's lap;ond him gesealde seofan þusendo, and of hides assigned him seven thousand,bold ond bregostol. Him wæs bam/ samod with house and high-seat. They held in commonon ðam leodscipe lond/ gecynde, land alike by their line of birth,eard, eðelriht, oðrum swiðor inheritance, home: but higher the kingside rice þam ðær selra wæs. because of his rule o'er the realm itself.Eft/ þæt geiode ufaran dogrum Now further it fell with the flight of years,hildehlæmmum, syððan Hygelac læg with harryings horrid, that Hygelac perished,ond Heardrede/ hildemeceas and Heardred, too, by hewing of swordsunder bordhreoðan to bonan wurdon, under the shield-wall slaughtered lay,ða hyne gesohtan on sigeþeode when him at the van of his victor-folkhearde hildefrecan, Heaðoscilfingas, sought hardy heroes, Heatho-Scilfings,niða genægdan nefan Hererices, in arms o'erwhelming Hereric's nephew.syððan Beowulfe brade rice Then Beowulf came as king this broadon hand gehwearf. he geheold tela realm to wield; and he ruled it wellfiftig wintra/ wæs ða frod cyning, fifty winters, a wise old prince,eald eþelweard/, oððæt an/ ongan warding his land, until One begandeorcum nihtum draca ricsian/, in the dark of night, a Dragon, to ðe on heanum hofe hord beweotode, In the grave on the hill a hoard it guarded,stanbeorh steapne/; stig under læg, in the stone-barrow steep. A strait path reached it,eldum uncuð. þær on innan giong unknown to mortals. Some man, however,niða nathwylc, se ðe/ neh/ gefeng came by chance that cave withinhæðnum horde, hond, to the heathen hoard. In hand he tooksince/ fahne. He þæt syððan, a golden goblet, nor gave he it back,þeah/ ðe/ he/ slæpende besyred/ wurde/ stole with it away, while the watcher slept,þeofes cræfte; þæt sie ðiod onfand/, by thievish wiles: for the warden's wrathbufolc/ beorna, þæt he gebolgen/ wæs. prince and people must pay betimes!Nealles mid gewealdum/ wyrmhord abræc/ THAT way he went with no will of his own,sylfes willum, se ðe him sare gesceod, in danger of life, to the dragon's hoard,ac for þreanedlan þeow/ nathwylces but for pressure of peril, some prince's thane.hæleða bearna heteswengeas fleah/, He fled in fear the fatal scourge,ærnes/ þearfa, ond ðær inne fealh/, seeking shelter, a sinful man,secg synbysig, sona onfunde and entered in. At the awful sightþæt þær/ ðam gyste gryrebroga/ stod; tottered that guest, and terror seized him;hwæðre earm/ sceapen/ yet the wretched fugitive rallied anonsceapen { from fright and fear ere he fled away,th}a/ hyne se fær begeat. and took the cup from that treasure-hoard.Sincfæt/; þær wæs swylcra fela Of such besides there was store enough,in ðam eorðhuse/ ærgestreona, heirlooms old, the earth below,swa hy on geardagum gumena nathwylc, which some earl forgotten, in ancient years,eormenlafe æþelan cynnes, left the last of his lofty race,þanchycgende þær gehydde, heedfully there had hidden away,deore maðmas. Ealle hie deað fornam dearest treasure. For death of yoreærran mælum, ond se/ an ða gen had hurried all hence; and he aloneleoda duguðe, se ðær lengest hwearf, left to live, the last of the clan,weard/ winegeomor, wende/ þæs ylcan, weeping his friends, yet wished to bideþæt he lytel fæc longgestreona warding the treasure, his one delight,brucan moste. Beorh eallgearo though brief his respite. The barrow, new-ready,wunode on wonge wæteryðum/ neah, to strand and sea-waves stood anear,niwe be næsse, nearocræftum fæst. hard by the headland, hidden and closed;þær on innan/ bær eorlgestreona there laid within it his lordly heirloomshringa hyrde hordwyrðne/ dæl, and heaped hoard of heavy goldfættan goldes, fea/ worda cwæð: that warden of rings. Few words he spake:Heald þu nu, hruse, nu hæleð ne moston/, "Now hold thou, earth, since heroes may not,eorla æhte. Hwæt, hyt ær on ðe what earls have owned! Lo, erst from theegode begeaton. Guðdeað fornam, brave men brought it! But battle-death seizedfeorhbealo/ frecne, fyra/ gehwylcne and cruel killing my clansmen all,leoda minra, þara/ ðe þis lif/ ofgeaf, robbed them of life and a liegeman's joys.gesawon seledream. Ic/ nah hwa sweord wege None have I left to lift the sword,oððe feormie/ fæted wæge, or to cleanse the carven cup of price,dryncfæt deore; duguð/ ellor sceoc/. beaker bright. My brave are gone.Sceal se hearda helm hyrsted/ golde And the helmet hard, all haughty with gold,fætum befeallen; feormynd swefað, shall part from its plating. Polishers sleepþa ðe beadogriman bywan sceoldon, who could brighten and burnish the battle-mask;ge swylce seo herepad, sio æt hilde gebad and those weeds of war that were wont to braveofer borda gebræc bite irena, over bicker of shields the bite of steelbrosnað æfter beorne. Ne mæg byrnan hring rust with their bearer. The ringed mailæfter wigfruman/ wide feran, fares not far with famous chieftain,hæleðum be healfe. Næs hearpan wyn, at side of hero! No harp's delight,gomen gleobeames, ne god hafoc no glee-wood's gladness! No good hawk nowgeond sæl swingeð, ne se swifta mearh flies through the hall! Nor horses fleetburhstede beateð. Bealocwealm hafað stamp in the burgstead! Battle and deathfela feorhcynna forð/ onsended. the flower of my race have reft away."Swa giomormod giohðo mænde Mournful of mood, thus he moaned his woe,an æfter eallum, unbliðe hwearf/ alone, for them all, and unblithe weptdæges ond nihtes, oððæt deaðes wylm by day and by night, till death's fell wavehran æt heortan. Hordwynne fond o'erwhelmed his heart. His hoard-of-blisseald uhtsceaða opene standan, that old ill-doer open found,se ðe byrnende/ biorgas seceð, who, blazing at twilight the barrows haunteth,nacod niðdraca, nihtes fleogeð naked foe-dragon flying by nightfyre befangen; hyne foldbuend folded in fire: the folk of earthswiðe/ ondrædað/. He gesecean sceall dread him sore. 'Tis his doom to seekhord/ on/ hrusan/, þær he hæðen gold hoard in the graves, and heathen goldwarað wintrum/ frod, ne byð him wihte ðy sel. to watch, many-wintered: nor wins he thereby!Swa se ðeodsceaða þreo hund wintra Powerful this plague-of-the-people thusheold on hrusan hordærna sum, held the house of the hoard in eartheacencræftig, oððæt hyne an abealch three hundred winters; till One arousedmon on mode; mandryhtne bær wrath in his breast, to the ruler bearingfæted wæge, frioðowære bæd that costly cup, and the king imploredhlaford sinne. ða wæs hord rasod, for bond of peace. So the barrow was plundered,onboren beaga hord, bene getiðad borne off was booty. His boon was grantedfeasceaftum men. Frea sceawode that wretched man; and his ruler sawfira fyrngeweorc forman siðe. first time what was fashioned in far-off days.þa se wyrm onwoc, wroht wæs geniwad; When the dragon awoke, new woe was kindled.stonc ða æfter stane, stearcheort onfand O'er the stone he snuffed. The stark-heart foundfeondes fotlast; he to forð gestop footprint of foe who so far had gonedyrnan cræfte dracan heafde neah. in his hidden craft by the creature's head. --Swa mæg unfæge eaðe gedigan So may the undoomed easily fleewean ond wræcsið, se ðe waldendes evils and exile, if only he gainhyldo gehealdeþ. Hordweard sohte the grace of The Wielder! -- That warden of goldgeorne æfter grunde, wolde guman findan, o'er the ground went seeking, greedy to findþone þe him on sweofote sare geteode, the man who wrought him such wrong in sleep.hat ond hreohmod hlæw/ oft ymbehwearf Savage and burning, the barrow he circledealne utanweardne/, ne ðær ænig mon all without; nor was any there,on þære/ westenne; hwæðre wiges/ gefeh, none in the waste.... Yet war he desired,beaduwe/ weorces, hwilum on beorh æthwearf, was eager for battle. The barrow he entered,sincfæt sohte. He þæt sona onfand/ sought the cup, and discovered soonðæt hæfde gumena sum goldes gefandod, that some one of mortals had searched his treasure,heahgestreona. Hordweard onbad his lordly gold. The guardian waitedearfoðlice oððæt æfen cwom; ill-enduring till evening came;wæs ða gebolgen beorges hyrde, boiling with wrath was the barrow's keeper,wolde se/ laða/ lige forgyldan and fain with flame the foe to paydrincfæt dyre. þa wæs dæg sceacen for the dear cup's loss. -- Now day was fledwyrme on willan; no on wealle læg, as the worm had wished. By its wall no morebidan wolde, ac mid bæle for, was it glad to bide, but burning flewfyre gefysed. Wæs se fruma egeslic folded in flame: a fearful beginningleodum on lande, swa hyt lungre wearð for sons of the soil; and soon it came,on hyra sincgifan sare geendod. in the doom of their lord, to a dreadful end.ða se gæst ongan gledum spiwan, THEN the baleful fiend its fire belched out,beorht hofu bærnan; bryneleoma stod and bright homes burned. The blaze stood higheldum on andan. No ðær/ aht cwices all landsfolk frighting. No living thinglað lyftfloga læfan wolde. would that loathly one leave as aloft it flew.Wæs þæs wyrmes wig wide gesyne, Wide was the dragon's warring seen,nearofages nið nean ond feorran, its fiendish fury far and near,hu se guðsceaða Geata leode as the grim destroyer those Geatish peoplehatode ond hynde; hord eft gesceat, hated and hounded. To hidden lair,dryhtsele dyrnne, ær dæges hwile. to its hoard it hastened at hint of dawn.Hæfde landwara lige befangen, Folk of the land it had lapped in flame,bæle ond bronde, beorges getruwode, with bale and brand. In its barrow it trusted,wiges ond wealles; him seo wen geleah. its battling and bulwarks: that boast was vain!þa wæs Biowulfe broga gecyðed To Beowulf then the bale was toldsnude to soðe, þæt his sylfes ham/, quickly and truly: the king's own home,bolda selest, brynewylmum mealt, of buildings the best, in brand-waves melted,gifstol Geata. þæt ðam godan wæs that gift-throne of Geats. To the good old manhreow on hreðre, hygesorga mæst; sad in heart, 'twas heaviest sorrow.wende se wisa þæt he wealdende The sage assumed that his sovran Godofer ealde riht, ecean dryhtne, he had angered, breaking ancient law,bitre gebulge. Breost innan weoll and embittered the Lord. His breast withinþeostrum geþoncum, swa him geþywe ne wæs. with black thoughts welled, as his wont was never.Hæfde ligdraca leoda fæsten, The folk's own fastness that fiery dragonealond utan, eorðweard ðone with flame had destroyed, and the stronghold allgledum forgrunden; him ðæs guðkyning, washed by waves; but the warlike king,Wedera þioden, wræce leornode. prince of the Weders, plotted vengeance.Heht him þa gewyrcean wigendra hleo Warriors'-bulwark, he bade them workeallirenne, eorla dryhten, all of iron -- the earl's commander --wigbord wrætlic; wisse he gearwe a war-shield wondrous: well he knewþæt him holtwudu helpan/ ne meahte, that forest-wood against fire were worthless,lind wið lige. Sceolde lændaga/ linden could aid not. -- Atheling brave,æþeling ærgod ende gebidan, he was fated to finish this fleeting life,worulde lifes, ond se wyrm somod, his days on earth, and the dragon with him,þeah ðe hordwelan heolde lange. though long it had watched o'er the wealth of the hoard! --Oferhogode ða hringa fengel Shame he reckoned it, sharer-of-rings,þæt he þone widflogan weorode gesohte, to follow the flyer-afar with a host,sidan herge; no he him þa/ sæcce ondred, a broad-flung band; nor the battle feared he,ne him þæs wyrmes wig for wiht dyde, nor deemed he dreadful the dragon's warring,eafoð ond ellen, forðon he ær fela its vigor and valor: ventures desperatenearo neðende niða gedigde, he had passed a-plenty, and perils of war,hildehlemma, syððan he Hroðgares, contest-crash, since, conqueror proud,sigoreadig secg, sele fælsode Hrothgar's hall he had wholly purged,ond æt guðe forgrap Grendeles mægum and in grapple had killed the kin of Grendel,laðan cynnes. No þæt læsest wæs loathsome breed! Not least was thathondgemota/, þær mon Hygelac sloh, of hand-to-hand fights where Hygelac fell,syððan Geata cyning guðe ræsum, when the ruler of Geats in rush of battle,freawine folca Freslondum on, lord of his folk, in the Frisian land,Hreðles eafora hiorodryncum swealt, son of Hrethel, by sword-draughts died,bille gebeaten. þonan Biowulf com by brands down-beaten. Thence Beowulf fledsylfes cræfte, sundnytte dreah; through strength of himself and his swimming power,hæfde him on earme ana/ XXXL though alone, and his arms were laden with thirtyhildegeatwa, þa he to holme beag/. coats of mail, when he came to the sea!Nealles Hetware hremge þorfton/ Nor yet might Hetwaras haughtily boastfeðewiges, þe him foran ongean their craft of contest, who carried against himlinde bæron; lyt eft becwom shields to the fight: but few escapedfram þam hildfrecan/ hames niosan. from strife with the hero to seek their homes!Oferswam ða sioleða bigong sunu Ecgðeowes, Then swam over ocean Ecgtheow's sonearm anhaga, eft to leodum; lonely and sorrowful, seeking his land,þær him Hygd gebead hord ond rice, where Hygd made him offer of hoard and realm,beagas ond bregostol, bearne ne truwode rings and royal-seat, reckoning naughtþæt he wið ælfylcum eþelstolas the strength of her son to save their kingdomhealdan cuðe, ða wæs Hygelac dead. from hostile hordes, after Hygelac's death.No ðy ær feasceafte findan meahton No sooner for this could the stricken onesæt ðam æðelinge ænige ðinga, in any wise move that atheling's mindþæt he Heardrede hlaford wære over young Heardred's head as lordoððe þone cynedom ciosan wolde; and ruler of all the realm to be:hwæðre he him on folce freondlarum heold, yet the hero upheld him with helpful words,estum mid are, oððæt he yldra wearð, aided in honor, till, older grown,Wedergeatum weold. Hyne wræcmæcgas he wielded the Weder-Geats. -- Wandering exilesofer sæ sohtan, suna Ohteres; sought him o'er seas, the sons of Ohtere,hæfdon hy forhealden helm Scylfinga, who had spurned the sway of the Scylfings'-helmet,þone selestan sæcyninga the bravest and best that broke the rings,þara ðe in Swiorice sinc brytnade, in Swedish land, of the sea-kings' line,mærne þeoden. Him þæt to mearce wearð; haughty hero. Hence Heardred's end.he þær/ for/ feorme feorhwunde hleat For shelter he gave them, sword-death came,sweordes swengum, sunu Hygelaces, the blade's fell blow, to bairn of Hygelac;ond him/ eft gewat Ongenðioes bearn but the son of Ongentheow sought againhames niosan, syððan Heardred læg, house and home when Heardred fell,let ðone bregostol Biowulf healdan, leaving Beowulf lord of GeatsGeatum wealdan. þæt wæs god cyning. and gift-seat's master. -- A good king he!Se ðæs leodhryres lean gemunde THE fall of his lord he was fain to requiteuferan dogrum. Eadgilse wearð in after days; and to Eadgils he provedfeasceaftum freond, folce gestepte friend to the friendless, and forces sentofer sæ side sunu Ohteres, over the sea to the son of Ohtere,wigum ond wæpnum; he gewræc syððan weapons and warriors: well repaid hecealdum cearsiðum, cyning ealdre bineat. those care-paths cold when the king he slew.Swa he niða gehwane genesen hæfde, Thus safe through struggles the son of Ecgtheowsliðra geslyhta/, sunu Ecgðiowes, had passed a plenty, through perils dire,ellenweorca, oð ðone anne dæg with daring deeds, till this day was comeþe he wið þam wyrme gewegan sceolde. that doomed him now with the dragon to strive.Gewat þa XIIa sum torne gebolgen With comrades eleven the lord of Geatsdryhten Geata dracan sceawian. swollen in rage went seeking the dragon.Hæfde þa gefrunen hwanan sio fæhð aras, He had heard whence all the harm arosebealonið biorna; him to bearme cwom and the killing of clansmen; that cup of pricemaðþumfæt mære þurh ðæs meldan hond. on the lap of the lord had been laid by the finder.Se wæs on ðam ðreate þreotteoða secg, In the throng was this one thirteenth man,se ðæs orleges or onstealde, starter of all the strife and ill,hæft hygegiomor, sceolde hean ðonon care-laden captive; cringing thencewong wisian. He ofer willan giong forced and reluctant, he led them onto ðæs ðe he eorðsele anne wisse, till he came in ken of that cavern-hall,hlæw under hrusan holmwylme neh, the barrow delved near billowy surges,yðgewinne; se wæs innan full flood of ocean. Within 'twas fullwrætta ond wira. Weard unhiore, of wire-gold and jewels; a jealous warden,gearo guðfreca, goldmaðmas heold, warrior trusty, the treasures held,eald under eorðan. Næs þæt yðe ceap lurked in his lair. Not light the taskto gegangenne gumena ænigum. of entrance for any of earth-born men!Gesæt ða on næsse niðheard cyning, Sat on the headland the hero king,þenden hælo abead heorðgeneatum, spake words of hail to his hearth-companions,goldwine Geata. Him wæs geomor sefa, gold-friend of Geats. All gloomy his soul,wæfre ond wælfus, wyrd ungemete neah, wavering, death-bound. Wyrd full nighse ðone gomelan gretan sceolde, stood ready to greet the gray-haired man,secean sawle hord, sundur gedælan to seize his soul-hoard, sunder apartlif wið lice, no þon lange wæs life and body. Not long would befeorh æþelinges flæsce bewunden. the warrior's spirit enwound with flesh.Biowulf maþelade, bearn Ecgðeowes: Beowulf spake, the bairn of Ecgtheow:--Fela ic on giogoðe guðræsa genæs, "Through store of struggles I strove in youth,orleghwila; ic þæt eall gemon. mighty feuds; I mind them all.Ic wæs syfanwintre, þa mec sinca/ baldor/, I was seven years old when the sovran of rings,freawine folca, æt minum fæder/ genam; friend-of-his-folk, from my father took me,heold mec ond hæfde Hreðel cyning, had me, and held me, Hrethel the king,geaf me sinc ond symbel, sibbe gemunde. with food and fee, faithful in kinship.Næs ic him to life laðra owihte, Ne'er, while I lived there, he loathlier found me,beorn in/ burgum, þonne his bearna hwylc, bairn in the burg, than his birthright sons,Herebeald ond Hæðcyn oððe Hygelac min. Herebeald and Haethcyn and Hygelac mine.Wæs þam yldestan ungedefelice For the eldest of these, by unmeet chance,mæges dædum morþorbed stred, by kinsman's deed, was the death-bed strewn,syððan hyne Hæðcyn of hornbogan, when Haethcyn killed him with horny bow,his freawine, flane geswencte, his own dear liege laid low with an arrow,miste mercelses ond his mæg ofscet, missed the mark and his mate shot down,broðor oðerne blodigan gare. one brother the other, with bloody shaft.þæt wæs feohleas gefeoht, fyrenum gesyngad, A feeless fight, and a fearful sin,hreðre hygemeðe; sceolde hwæðre swa þeah horror to Hrethel; yet, hard as it was,æðeling unwrecen ealdres linnan. unavenged must the atheling die!Swa bið geomorlic gomelum ceorle Too awful it is for an aged manto gebidanne, þæt his byre ride to bide and bear, that his bairn so younggiong on galgan, þonne he gyd wrece, rides on the gallows. A rime he makes,sarigne sang, þonne his sunu hangað sorrow-song for his son there hanginghrefne to hroðre, ond he him helpe/ ne mæg, as rapture of ravens; no rescue noweald ond infrod, ænige gefremman. can come from the old, disabled man!Symble bið gemyndgad morna gehwylce Still is he minded, as morning breaks,eaforan ellorsið; oðres ne gymeð of the heir gone elsewhere; another he hopes notto gebidanne burgum in innan he will bide to see his burg withinyrfeweardas, þonne se an hafað as ward for his wealth, now the one has foundþurh deaðes nyd dæda gefondad. doom of death that the deed incurred.Gesyhð sorhcearig on his suna bure Forlorn he looks on the lodge of his son,winsele westne, windge reste wine-hall waste and wind-swept chambersreote berofene. Ridend swefað, reft of revel. The rider sleepeth,hæleð in hoðman; nis þær hearpan sweg, the hero, far-hidden; no harp resounds,gomen in geardum, swylce ðær iu wæron. in the courts no wassail, as once was heard.Gewiteð þonne on sealman, sorhleoð gæleð "THEN he goes to his chamber, a grief-song chantsan æfter anum; þuhte him eall to rum, alone for his lost. Too large all seems,wongas ond wicstede. Swa Wedra helm homestead and house. So the helmet-of-Wedersæfter Herebealde heortan sorge hid in his heart for Herebealdweallende/ wæg. Wihte ne meahte waves of woe. No way could he takeon ðam feorhbonan fæghðe gebetan; to avenge on the slayer slaughter so foul;no ðy ær he þone heaðorinc hatian ne meahte nor e'en could he harass that hero at alllaðum dædum, þeah him leof ne wæs. with loathing deed, though he loved him not.He ða mid þære sorhge, þe him swa/ sar belamp, And so for the sorrow his soul endured,gumdream ofgeaf, godes leoht geceas, men's gladness he gave up and God's light chose.eaferum læfde, swa deð eadig mon, Lands and cities he left his sonslond ond leodbyrig, þa he of life gewat. (as the wealthy do) when he went from earth.þa wæs synn ond sacu Sweona ond Geata There was strife and struggle 'twixt Swede and Geatofer wid/ wæter, wroht gemæne, o'er the width of waters; war arose,herenið hearda, syððan Hreðel swealt, hard battle-horror, when Hrethel died,oððe him Ongenðeowes eaferan wæran and Ongentheow's offspring grewfrome, fyrdhwate, freode ne woldon strife-keen, bold, nor brooked o'er the seasofer heafo healdan, ac ymb Hreosnabeorh pact of peace, but pushed their hostseatolne inwitscear oft gefremedon/. to harass in hatred by Hreosnabeorh.þæt mægwine mine gewræcan, Men of my folk for that feud had vengeance,fæhðe ond fyrene, swa hyt gefræge wæs, for woful war ('tis widely known),þeah ðe oðer his ealdre gebohte, though one of them bought it with blood of his heart,heardan ceape: Hæðcynne wearð, a bargain hard: for Haethcyn provedGeata dryhtne, guð onsæge. fatal that fray, for the first-of-Geats.þa ic on morgne gefrægn mæg oðerne At morn, I heard, was the murderer killedbilles ecgum on bonan stælan, by kinsman for kinsman, with clash of sword,þær Ongenþeow Eofores niosað. when Ongentheow met Eofor there.Guðhelm toglad, gomela Scylfing Wide split the war-helm: wan he fell,hreas hildeblac/; hond gemunde hoary Scylfing; the hand that smote himfæhðo genoge, feorhsweng ne ofteah. of feud was mindful, nor flinched from the death-blow.Ic him þa maðmas, þe he me sealde, -- "For all that he gave me, my gleaming swordgeald æt guðe, swa me gifeðe wæs, repaid him at war, -- such power I wielded, --leohtan sweorde; he me lond forgeaf, for lordly treasure: with land he entrusted me,eard, eðelwyn. Næs him ænig þearf homestead and house. He had no needþæt he to Gifðum oððe to Gardenum from Swedish realm, or from Spear-Dane folk,oððe in Swiorice secean þurfe or from men of the Gifths, to get him help, --wyrsan/ wigfrecan, weorðe gecypan. some warrior worse for wage to buy!Symle ic him on feðan beforan wolde, Ever I fought in the front of all,ana on orde, ond swa to aldre sceall sole to the fore; and so shall I fightsæcce fremman, þenden þis sweord þolað, while I bide in life and this blade shall lastþæt mec ær ond sið oft gelæste. that early and late hath loyal provedSyððan ic for dugeðum Dæghrefne wearð since for my doughtiness Daeghrefn fell,to handbonan, Huga cempan; slain by my hand, the Hugas' champion.nalles he ða frætwe Frescyninge/, Nor fared he thence to the Frisian kingbreostweorðunge, bringan moste, with the booty back, and breast-adornments;ac in compe/ gecrong cumbles hyrde, but, slain in struggle, that standard-beareræþeling on elne; ne wæs ecg bona, fell, atheling brave. Not with blade was he slain,ac him hildegrap heortan wylmas, but his bones were broken by brawny gripe,banhus gebræc. Nu sceall billes ecg, his heart-waves stilled. -- The sword-edge now,hond ond heard sweord, ymb hord wigan. hard blade and my hand, for the hoard shall strive."Beowulf maðelode, beotwordum spræc Beowulf spake, and a battle-vow madeniehstan siðe: Ic geneðde fela his last of all: "I have lived through manyguða on geogoðe; gyt ic wylle, wars in my youth; now once again,frod folces weard, fæhðe secan, old folk-defender, feud will I seek,mærðu/ fremman, gif mec se mansceaða do doughty deeds, if the dark destroyerof eorðsele ut geseceð. forth from his cavern come to fight me!"Gegrette ða gumena gehwylcne, Then hailed he the helmeted heroes all,hwate helmberend, hindeman siðe, for the last time greeting his liegemen dear,swæse gesiðas: Nolde ic sweord beran, comrades of war: "I should carry no weapon,wæpen to wyrme, gif ic wiste hu no sword to the serpent, if sure I knewwið ðam aglæcean elles/ meahte how, with such enemy, else my vowsgylpe wiðgripan, swa ic gio wið/ Grendle dyde. I could gain as I did in Grendel's day.Ac ic ðær heaðufyres hates wene, But fire in this fight I must fear me now,oreðes/ ond attres/; forðon ic me on hafu and poisonous breath; so I bring with mebord ond byrnan. Nelle ic beorges weard breastplate and board. From the barrow's keeperforfleon/ fotes trem, ac unc furður/ sceal no footbreadth flee I. One fight shall endweorðan æt wealle, swa unc wyrd geteoð, our war by the wall, as Wyrd allots,metod manna gehwæs. Ic eom on mode from all mankind's master. My mood is boldþæt ic wið þone guðflogan gylp ofersitte. but forbears to boast o'er this battling-flyer.Gebide ge on beorge byrnum werede, -- Now abide by the barrow, ye breastplate-mailed,secgas on searwum, hwæðer sel mæge ye heroes in harness, which of us twainæfter wælræse wunde gedygan better from battle-rush bear his wounds.uncer twega. Nis þæt eower sið Wait ye the finish. The fight is not yours,ne gemet mannes, nefne/ min anes, nor meet for any but me aloneþæt/ he wið aglæcean eofoðo dæle, to measure might with this monster hereeorlscype efne. Ic mid elne sceall and play the hero. Hardily Igold gegangan, oððe guð nimeð, shall win that wealth, or war shall seize,feorhbealu frecne, frean eowerne. cruel killing, your king and lord!"Aras ða bi ronde rof oretta, Up stood then with shield the sturdy champion,heard under helme, hiorosercean bær stayed by the strength of his single manhood,under stancleofu, strengo getruwode and hardy 'neath helmet his harness boreanes mannes. Ne bið swylc earges sið. under cleft of the cliffs: no coward's path!Geseah ða be wealle se ðe/ worna fela, Soon spied by the wall that warrior chief,gumcystum god, guða gedigde, survivor of many a victory-fieldhildehlemma, þonne hnitan feðan, where foemen fought with furious clashings,stondan/ stanbogan, stream ut þonan an arch of stone; and within, a streambrecan of beorge. Wæs þære burnan wælm that broke from the barrow. The brooklet's waveheaðofyrum hat; ne meahte horde neah was hot with fire. The hoard that wayunbyrnende ænige hwile he never could hope unharmed to near,deop gedygan for dracan lege. or endure those deeps, for the dragon's flame.Let ða of breostum, ða he gebolgen wæs, Then let from his breast, for he burst with rage,Wedergeata leod word ut faran, the Weder-Geat prince a word outgo;stearcheort styrmde; stefn in becom stormed the stark-heart; stern went ringingheaðotorht hlynnan under harne stan. and clear his cry 'neath the cliff-rocks gray.Hete wæs onhrered, hordweard oncniow The hoard-guard heard a human voice;mannes reorde; næs ðær mara fyrst his rage was enkindled. No respite nowfreode to friclan. From ærest cwom for pact of peace! The poison-breathoruð aglæcean ut of stane, of that foul worm first came forth from the cave,hat hildeswat. Hruse dynede. hot reek-of-fight: the rocks resounded.Biorn under beorge bordrand onswaf Stout by the stone-way his shield he raised,wið ðam gryregieste, Geata dryhten; lord of the Geats, against the loathed-one;ða wæs hringbogan heorte gefysed while with courage keen that coiled foesæcce to seceanne. Sweord ær gebræd came seeking strife. The sturdy kinggod guðcyning, gomele lafe, had drawn his sword, not dull of edge,ecgum unslaw/; æghwæðrum wæs heirloom old; and each of the twobealohycgendra broga fram oðrum. felt fear of his foe, though fierce their mood.Stiðmod gestod wið/ steapne rond Stoutly stood with his shield high-raisedwinia bealdor, ða se wyrm gebeah the warrior king, as the worm now coiledsnude tosomne; he on searwum bad. together amain: the mailed-one waited.Gewat ða byrnende gebogen scriðan, Now, spire by spire, fast sped and glidedto gescipe scyndan. Scyld wel gebearg that blazing serpent. The shield protected,life ond lice læssan hwile soul and body a shorter whilemærum þeodne þonne his myne sohte, for the hero-king than his heart desired,ðær he þy fyrste, forman dogore could his will have wielded the welcome respitewealdan moste swa him wyrd ne gescraf but once in his life! But Wyrd denied it,hreð æt hilde. Hond up abræd and victory's honors. -- His arm he liftedGeata dryhten, gryrefahne sloh lord of the Geats, the grim foe smoteincgelafe, þæt sio ecg gewac with atheling's heirloom. Its edge was turnedbrun on bane, bat unswiðor brown blade, on the bone, and bit more feeblyþonne his ðiodcyning þearfe hæfde, than its noble master had need of thenbysigum gebæded. þa wæs beorges weard in his baleful stress. -- Then the barrow's keeperæfter heaðuswenge on hreoum mode, waxed full wild for that weighty blow,wearp wælfyre; wide sprungon cast deadly flames; wide drove and farhildeleoman. Hreðsigora ne gealp those vicious fires. No victor's glorygoldwine Geata; guðbill geswac, the Geats' lord boasted; his brand had failed,nacod æt niðe, swa hyt no sceolde, naked in battle, as never it should,iren ærgod. Ne wæs þæt eðe sið, excellent iron! -- 'Twas no easy pathþæt se mæra maga Ecgðeowes that Ecgtheow's honored heir must treadgrundwong þone ofgyfan wolde; over the plain to the place of the foe;sceolde ofer/ willan wic eardian for against his will he must win a homeelles hwergen, swa sceal æghwylc mon elsewhere far, as must all men, leavingalætan lændagas. Næs ða long to ðon this lapsing life! -- Not long it wasþæt ða aglæcean hy eft gemetton. ere those champions grimly closed again.Hyrte hyne hordweard hreðer æðme weoll The hoard-guard was heartened; high heaved his breastniwan stefne; nearo ðrowode, once more; and by peril was pressed again,fyre befongen, se ðe ær folce weold. enfolded in flames, the folk-commander!Nealles him on heape handgesteallan/, Nor yet about him his band of comrades,æðelinga bearn, ymbe gestodon sons of athelings, armed stoodhildecystum, ac hy on holt bugon, with warlike front: to the woods they bent them,ealdre burgan. Hiora in anum weoll their lives to save. But the soul of onesefa wið sorgum; sibb æfre ne mæg with care was cumbered. Kinship truewiht onwendan þam ðe wel þenceð. can never be marred in a noble mind!Wiglaf wæs haten Weoxstanes sunu, WIGLAF his name was, Weohstan's son,leoflic lindwiga, leod Scylfinga, linden-thane loved, the lord of Scylfings,mæg ælfheres; geseah his mondryhten Aelfhere's kinsman. His king he now sawunder heregriman hat þrowian. with heat under helmet hard oppressed.Gemunde ða ða are þe he him ær forgeaf, He minded the prizes his prince had given him,wicstede weligne Wægmundinga, wealthy seat of the Waegmunding line,folcrihta gehwylc, swa his fæder ahte. and folk-rights that his father ownedNe mihte ða forhabban; hond rond gefeng, Not long he lingered. The linden yellow,geolwe linde, gomel swyrd geteah, his shield, he seized; the old sword he drew: --þæt wæs mid eldum Eanmundes laf, as heirloom of Eanmund earth-dwellers knew it,suna Ohteres/. þam æt sæcce wearð, who was slain by the sword-edge, son of Ohtere,wræccan/ wineleasum, Weohstan/ bana friendless exile, erst in fraymeces ecgum, ond his magum ætbær killed by Weohstan, who won for his kinbrunfagne helm, hringde byrnan, brown-bright helmet, breastplate ringed,eald sweord etonisc; þæt him Onela forgeaf, old sword of Eotens, Onela's gift,his gædelinges guðgewædu, weeds of war of the warrior-thane,fyrdsearo fuslic, no ymbe ða fæhðe spræc, battle-gear brave: though a brother's childþeah ðe he his broðor bearn abredwade. had been felled, the feud was unfelt by Onela.He frætwe geheold fela missera, For winters this war-gear Weohstan kept,bill ond byrnan, oððæt his byre mihte breastplate and board, till his bairn had growneorlscipe efnan swa his ærfæder; earlship to earn as the old sire did:geaf him ða mid Geatum guðgewæda, then he gave him, mid Geats, the gear of battle,æghwæs unrim, þa he of ealdre gewat, portion huge, when he passed from life,frod on forðweg. þa wæs forma sið fared aged forth. For the first time nowgeongan cempan, þæt he guðe ræs with his leader-lord the liegeman youngmid his freodryhtne fremman sceolde. was bidden to share the shock of battle.Ne gemealt him se modsefa, ne his mæges/ laf Neither softened his soul, nor the sire's bequestgewac æt wige; þæt/ se wyrm onfand, weakened in war. So the worm found outsyððan hie togædre gegan hæfdon. when once in fight the foes had met!Wiglaf maðelode, wordrihta fela Wiglaf spake, -- and his words were sage;sægde gesiðum him wæs sefa geomor: sad in spirit, he said to his comrades:--Ic ðæt mæl/ geman, þær we medu þegun, "I remember the time, when mead we took,þonne we/ geheton ussum hlaforde what promise we made to this prince of oursin biorsele, ðe us ðas beagas geaf, in the banquet-hall, to our breaker-of-rings,þæt we him ða guðgetawa gyldan woldon for gear of combat to give him requital,gif him þyslicu þearf gelumpe, for hard-sword and helmet, if hap should bringhelmas ond heard sweord. ðe he usic on herge geceas stress of this sort! Himself who chose usto ðyssum siðfate sylfes willum, from all his army to aid him now,onmunde usic mærða, ond me þas maðmas geaf, urged us to glory, and gave these treasures,þe he usic garwigend gode tealde, because he counted us keen with the spearhwate helmberend, þeah ðe hlaford us and hardy 'neath helm, though this hero-workþis ellenweorc ana aðohte our leader hoped unhelped and aloneto gefremmanne, folces hyrde, to finish for us, -- folk-defenderfor ðam he manna mæst mærða gefremede, who hath got him glory greater than all mendæda dollicra. Nu is se dæg cumen for daring deeds! Now the day is comeþæt ure mandryhten mægenes behofað, that our noble master has need of the mightgodra guðrinca; wutun gongan to, of warriors stout. Let us stride alonghelpan hildfruman, þenden hyt sy, the hero to help while the heat is about himgledegesa grim. God wat on mec glowing and grim! For God is my witnessþæt me is micle leofre þæt minne lichaman I am far more fain the fire should seizemid minne goldgyfan gled fæðmie. along with my lord these limbs of mine!Ne þynceð me gerysne þæt we rondas beren Unsuiting it seems our shields to beareft to earde, nemne we æror mægen homeward hence, save here we essayfane gefyllan, feorh ealgian to fell the foe and defend the lifeWedra ðeodnes. Ic wat geare/ of the Weders' lord. I wot 'twere shameþæt næron ealdgewyrht, þæt he ana scyle on the law of our land if alone the kingGeata/ duguðe gnorn þrowian, out of Geatish warriors woe enduredgesigan æt sæcce; urum sceal sweord ond helm, and sank in the struggle! My sword and helmet,byrne ond beaduscrud/, bam gemæne. breastplate and board, for us both shall serve!"Wod þa þurh þone wælrec, wigheafolan bær Through slaughter-reek strode he to succor his chieftain,frean on fultum, fea worda cwæð/: his battle-helm bore, and brief words spake:--Leofa Biowulf, læst eall tela, "Beowulf dearest, do all bravely,swa ðu on geoguðfeore geara gecwæde as in youthful days of yore thou vowedstþæt ðu ne alæte be ðe lifigendum that while life should last thou wouldst let no wisedom gedreosan. Scealt nu dædum rof, thy glory droop! Now, great in deeds,æðeling anhydig, ealle mægene atheling steadfast, with all thy strengthfeorh ealgian; ic ðe fullæstu. shield thy life! I will stand to help thee."æfter ðam wordum wyrm yrre cwom, At the words the worm came once again,atol inwitgæst, oðre siðe murderous monster mad with rage,fyrwylmum fah fionda niosian/, with fire-billows flaming, its foes to seek,laðra manna; ligyðum for. the hated men. In heat-waves burnedBorn bord wið rond, byrne ne meahte that board to the boss, and the breastplate failedgeongum garwigan geoce gefremman, to shelter at all the spear-thane se maga geonga under/ his mæges scyld Yet quickly under his kinsman's shieldelne geeode, þa his agen wæs/ went eager the earl, since his own was nowgledum forgrunden. þa gen guðcyning all burned by the blaze. The bold king againmærða/ gemunde, mægenstrengo sloh had mind of his glory: with might his glaivehildebille, þæt hyt on heafolan stod was driven into the dragon's head, --niþe genyded; Nægling forbærst, blow nerved by hate. But Naegling was shivered,geswac æt sæcce sweord Biowulfes, broken in battle was Beowulf's sword,gomol ond grægmæl. Him þæt gifeðe ne wæs old and gray. 'Twas granted him notþæt him irenna ecge mihton that ever the edge of iron at allhelpan æt hilde; wæs sio hond to strong, could help him at strife: too strong was his hand,se ðe meca gehwane, mine gefræge, so the tale is told, and he tried too farswenge ofersohte, þonne he to sæcce bær with strength of stroke all swords he wielded,wæpen wundrum/ heard; næs him wihte ðe sel. though sturdy their steel: they steaded him nought.þa wæs þeodsceaða þriddan siðe, Then for the third time thought on its feudfrecne fyrdraca, fæhða gemyndig, that folk-destroyer, fire-dread dragon,ræsde on ðone rofan, þa him rum ageald, and rushed on the hero, where room allowed,hat ond heaðogrim, heals ealne ymbefeng battle-grim, burning; its bitter teethbiteran banum; he geblodegod wearð closed on his neck, and covered himsawuldriore, swat yðum weoll. with waves of blood from his breast that welled.ða ic æt þearfe gefrægn/ þeodcyninges 'TWAS now, men say, in his sovran's needandlongne eorl ellen cyðan, that the earl made known his noble strain,cræft ond cenðu, swa him gecynde wæs. craft and keenness and courage enduring.Ne hedde he þæs heafolan, ac sio hand gebarn Heedless of harm, though his hand was burned,modiges mannes, þær he his mæges/ healp, hardy-hearted, he helped his kinsman.þæt he þone niðgæst nioðor hwene sloh, A little lower the loathsome beastsecg on searwum, þæt ðæt sweord gedeaf, he smote with sword; his steel drove infah ond fæted, þæt ðæt fyr ongon bright and burnished; that blaze begansweðrian syððan. þa gen sylf cyning to lose and lessen. At last the kinggeweold his gewitte, wællseaxe gebræd wielded his wits again, war-knife drew,biter ond beaduscearp, þæt he on byrnan wæg; a biting blade by his breastplate hanging,forwrat Wedra helm wyrm on middan. and the Weders'-helm smote that worm asunder,Feond gefyldan ferh ellen wræc, felled the foe, flung forth its life.ond hi hyne þa begen abroten hæfdon, So had they killed it, kinsmen both,sibæðelingas. Swylc sceolde secg wesan, athelings twain: thus an earl should beþegn æt ðearfe. þæt ðam þeodne wæs in danger's day! -- Of deeds of valorsiðast/ sigehwila sylfes dædum, this conqueror's-hour of the king was last,worlde geweorces. ða sio wund ongon, of his work in the world. The wound began,þe him se eorðdraca/ ær geworhte, which that dragon-of-earth had erst inflicted,swelan ond swellan; he þæt sona onfand, to swell and smart; and soon he foundþæt him on breostum bealoniðe/ weoll in his breast was boiling, baleful and deep,attor on innan. ða se æðeling giong pain of poison. The prince walked on,þæt he bi wealle wishycgende wise in his thought, to the wall of rock;gesæt on sesse; seah on enta geweorc, then sat, and stared at the structure of giants,hu ða stanbogan stapulum fæste where arch of stone and steadfast columnece eorðreced innan healde. upheld forever that hall in earth.Hyne þa mid handa heorodreorigne, Yet here must the hand of the henchman peerlessþeoden mærne, þegn ungemete till lave with water his winsome lord,winedryhten/ his wætere gelafede, the king and conqueror covered with blood,hilde sædne, ond his helm/ onspeon. with struggle spent, and unspan his helmet.Biowulf maþelode he ofer benne spræc, Beowulf spake in spite of his hurt,wunde wælbleate; wisse he gearwe his mortal wound; full well he knewþæt he dæghwila gedrogen hæfde, his portion now was past and goneeorðan wynne/; ða wæs eall sceacen of earthly bliss, and all had fleddogorgerimes, deað ungemete neah: of his file of days, and death was near:Nu ic suna minum syllan wolde "I would fain bestow on son of mineguðgewædu, þær me gifeðe swa this gear of war, were given me nowænig yrfeweard æfter wurde that any heir should after me comelice gelenge. Ic ðas leode heold of my proper blood. This people I ruledfiftig wintra; næs se folccyning, fifty winters. No folk-king was there,ymbesittendra ænig ðara, none at all, of the neighboring clansþe mec guðwinum gretan dorste, who war would wage me with 'warriors'-friends'egesan ðeon. Ic on earde bad and threat me with horrors. At home I bidedmælgesceafta, heold min tela, what fate might come, and I cared for mine own;ne sohte searoniðas, ne me swor fela feuds I sought not, nor falsely sworeaða on unriht. Ic ðæs ealles mæg ever on oath. For all these things,feorhbennum seoc gefean habban; though fatally wounded, fain am I!for ðam me witan ne ðearf waldend fira From the Ruler-of-Man no wrath shall seize me,morðorbealo maga, þonne min sceaceð when life from my frame must flee away,lif of lice. Nu ðu lungre geong for killing of kinsmen! Now quickly gohord sceawian under harne stan, and gaze on that hoard 'neath the hoary rock,Wiglaf leofa, nu se wyrm ligeð, Wiglaf loved, now the worm lies low,swefeð sare wund, since bereafod. sleeps, heart-sore, of his spoil bereaved.Bio nu on ofoste, þæt ic ærwelan, And fare in haste. I would fain beholdgoldæht ongite, gearo sceawige the gorgeous heirlooms, golden store,swegle searogimmas, þæt ic ðy seft mæge have joy in the jewels and gems, lay downæfter maððumwelan min alætan softlier for sight of this splendid hoardlif ond leodscipe, þone ic longe heold. my life and the lordship I long have held."ða ic snude gefrægn sunu Wihstanes I HAVE heard that swiftly the son of Weohstanæfter wordcwydum wundum dryhtne at wish and word of his wounded king, --hyran heaðosiocum, hringnet beran, war-sick warrior, -- woven mail-coat,brogdne beadusercean under/ beorges hrof. battle-sark, bore 'neath the barrow's roof.Geseah ða sigehreðig, þa he bi sesse geong, Then the clansman keen, of conquest proud,magoþegn modig maððumsigla fealo, passing the seat, saw store of jewelsgold glitinian grunde getenge, and glistening gold the ground along;wundur on wealle, ond þæs wyrmes denn, by the wall were marvels, and many a vesselealdes uhtflogan, orcas stondan, in the den of the dragon, the dawn-flier old:fyrnmanna fatu feormendlease, unburnished bowls of bygone menhyrstum behrorene; þær wæs helm monig reft of richness; rusty helmseald ond omig, earmbeaga fela of the olden age; and arm-rings manysearwum gesæled. Sinc eaðe mæg, wondrously woven. -- Such wealth of gold,gold on grunde/, gumcynnes gehwone booty from barrow, can burden with prideoferhigian, hyde se ðe wylle. each human wight: let him hide it who will! --Swylce he siomian geseah segn eallgylden His glance too fell on a gold-wove bannerheah ofer horde, hondwundra mæst, high o'er the hoard, of handiwork noblest,gelocen leoðocræftum; of ðam leoma/ stod, brilliantly broidered; so bright its gleam,þæt he þone grundwong ongitan meahte, all the earth-floor he easily sawwræte/ giondwlitan. Næs ðæs wyrmes þær and viewed all these vessels. No vestige nowonsyn ænig, ac hyne ecg fornam. was seen of the serpent: the sword had ta'en him.ða ic on hlæwe gefrægn hord reafian, Then, I heard, the hill of its hoard was reft,eald enta geweorc, anne mannan, old work of giants, by one alone;him on bearm hladon/ bunan ond discas he burdened his bosom with beakers and platesylfes dome; segn eac genom, at his own good will, and the ensign took,beacna beorhtost. Bill ær gescod brightest of beacons. -- The blade of his lordecg wæs iren ealdhlafordes -- its edge was iron -- had injured deepþam ðara maðma mundbora wæs one that guarded the golden hoardlonge hwile, ligegesan wæg many a year and its murder-firehatne for horde, hioroweallende spread hot round the barrow in horror-billowsmiddelnihtum, oðþæt he morðre swealt. at midnight hour, till it met its doom.Ar wæs on ofoste, eftsiðes georn, Hasted the herald, the hoard so spurred himfrætwum gefyrðred; hyne fyrwet bræc, his track to retrace; he was troubled by doubt,hwæðer collenferð cwicne gemette high-souled hero, if haply he'd findin ðam wongstede Wedra þeoden alive, where he left him, the lord of Weders,ellensiocne, þær he hine ær forlet. weakening fast by the wall of the cave.He ða mid þam maðmum mærne þioden, So he carried the load. His lord and kingdryhten sinne, driorigne fand he found all bleeding, famous chiefealdres æt ende; he hine eft ongon at the lapse of life. The liegeman againwæteres weorpan, oðþæt wordes ord plashed him with water, till point of wordbreosthord þurhbræc. broke through the breast-hoard. Beowulf spake,gomel/ on giohðe/ gold sceawode: sage and sad, as he stared at the gold. --Ic ðara frætwa frean ealles ðanc, "For the gold and treasure, to God my thanks,wuldurcyninge, wordum secge, to the Wielder-of-Wonders, with words I say,ecum dryhtne, þe ic her on starie, for what I behold, to Heaven's Lord,þæs ðe ic moste minum leodum for the grace that I give such gifts to my folkær swyltdæge swylc gestrynan. or ever the day of my death be run!Nu ic on maðma hord mine/ bebohte Now I've bartered here for booty of treasurefrode feorhlege, fremmað gena the last of my life, so look ye wellleoda þearfe; ne mæg ic her leng wesan. to the needs of my land! No longer I tarry.Hatað heaðomære hlæw gewyrcean A barrow bid ye the battle-fanned raisebeorhtne æfter bæle æt brimes nosan; for my ashes. 'Twill shine by the shore of the flood,se scel to gemyndum minum leodum to folk of mine memorial fairheah hlifian on Hronesnæsse, on Hrones Headland high uplifted,þæt hit sæliðend syððan hatan that ocean-wanderers oft may hailBiowulfes biorh, ða ðe brentingas Beowulf's Barrow, as back from farofer floda genipu feorran drifað. they drive their keels o'er the darkling wave."Dyde him of healse hring gyldenne From his neck he unclasped the collar of gold,þioden þristhydig, þegne gesealde, valorous king, to his vassal gave itgeongum garwigan, goldfahne helm, with bright-gold helmet, breastplate, and ring,beah ond byrnan, het hyne brucan well: to the youthful thane: bade him use them in joy.þu eart endelaf usses cynnes, "Thou art end and remnant of all our raceWægmundinga. Ealle wyrd forsweop/ the Waegmunding name. For Wyrd hath swept them,mine magas to metodsceafte, all my line, to the land of doom,eorlas on elne; ic him æfter sceal. earls in their glory: I after them go."þæt wæs þam gomelan gingæste word This word was the last which the wise old manbreostgehygdum, ær he bæl cure, harbored in heart ere hot death-waveshate heaðowylmas; him of hreðre/ gewat of balefire he chose. From his bosom fledsawol secean soðfæstra dom. his soul to seek the saints' reward.ða wæs gegongen guman/ unfrodum IT was heavy hap for that hero youngearfoðlice, þæt he on eorðan geseah on his lord beloved to look and find himþone leofestan lifes æt ende lying on earth with life at end,bleate gebæran. Bona swylce læg, sorrowful sight. But the slayer too,egeslic eorðdraca ealdre bereafod, awful earth-dragon, empty of breath,bealwe gebæded. Beahhordum leng lay felled in fight, nor, fain of its treasure,wyrm wohbogen wealdan ne moste, could the writhing monster rule it hine/ irenna ecga fornamon, For edges of iron had ended its days,hearde, heaðoscearde homera lafe, hard and battle-sharp, hammers' leaving;þæt se widfloga wundum stille and that flier-afar had fallen to groundhreas on hrusan hordærne neah. hushed by its hurt, its hoard all near,Nalles æfter lyfte lacende hwearf no longer lusty aloft to whirlmiddelnihtum, maðmæhta wlonc at midnight, making its merriment seen,ansyn ywde, ac he eorðan gefeoll proud of its prizes: prone it sankfor ðæs hildfruman hondgeweorce. by the handiwork of the hero-king.Huru þæt on lande lyt manna ðah, Forsooth among folk but few achieve,mægenagendra, mine gefræge, -- though sturdy and strong, as stories tell me,þeah ðe he dæda gehwæs dyrstig wære, and never so daring in deed of valor, --þæt he wið attorsceaðan oreðe geræsde, the perilous breath of a poison-foeoððe hringsele hondum styrede, to brave, and to rush on the ring-board hall,gif he wæccende weard onfunde whenever his watch the warden keepsbuon on beorge. Biowulfe wearð bold in the barrow. Beowulf paiddryhtmaðma dæl deaðe forgolden; the price of death for that precious hoard;hæfde æghwæðer/ ende gefered and each of the foes had found the endlænan lifes. Næs ða lang to ðon of this fleeting life. Befell erelongþæt ða hildlatan holt ofgefan, that the laggards in war the wood had left,tydre treowlogan tyne ætsomne. trothbreakers, cowards, ten together,ða ne dorston ær dareðum lacan fearing before to flourish a spearon hyra mandryhtnes miclan þearfe, in the sore distress of their sovran hy scamiende scyldas bæran, Now in their shame their shields they carried,guðgewædu, þær se gomela læg, armor of fight, where the old man lay;wlitan on Wilaf. He gewergad sæt, and they gazed on Wiglaf. Wearied he satfeðecempa, frean eaxlum neah, at his sovran's shoulder, shieldsman good,wehte hyne wætre; him wiht ne speow/. to wake him with water. Nowise it availed.Ne meahte he on eorðan, ðeah he uðe wel, Though well he wished it, in world no moreon ðam frumgare feorh gehealdan, could he barrier life for that leader-of-battlesne ðæs wealdendes wiht oncirran; nor baffle the will of all-wielding God.wolde dom godes dædum rædan Doom of the Lord was law o'er the deedsgumena gehwylcum, swa he nu gen deð. of every man, as it is to-day.þa wæs æt ðam geongan/ grim ondswaru/ Grim was the answer, easy to get,eðbegete þam ðe ær his elne forleas. from the youth for those that had yielded to fear!Wiglaf maðelode, Weohstanes sunu, Wiglaf spake, the son of Weohstan, --sec, sarigferð seah on unleofe: mournful he looked on those men unloved:--þæt, la, mæg secgan se ðe wyle soð specan "Who sooth will speak, can say indeedþæt se mondryhten se eow ða maðmas geaf, that the ruler who gave you golden ringseoredgeatwe, þe ge þær on standað, and the harness of war in which ye standþonne he on ealubence oft gesealde -- for he at ale-bench often-timeshealsittendum helm ond byrnan, bestowed on hall-folk helm and breastplate,þeoden his þegnum, swylce he þrydlicost lord to liegemen, the likeliest gearower feor oððe neah findan meahte, which near of far he could find to give, --þæt he genunga guðgewædu threw away and wasted these weeds of battle,wraðe forwurpe, ða hyne wig beget. on men who failed when the foemen came!Nealles folccyning fyrdgesteallum Not at all could the king of his comrades-in-armsgylpan þorfte; hwæðre him god uðe, venture to vaunt, though the Victory-Wielder,sigora waldend, þæt he hyne sylfne gewræc God, gave him grace that he got revengeana mid ecge, þa him wæs elnes þearf. sole with his sword in stress and need.Ic him lifwraðe lytle meahte To rescue his life, 'twas little that Iætgifan æt guðe, ond ongan swa þeah could serve him in struggle; yet shift I madeofer min gemet mæges helpan; (hopeless it seemed) to help my kinsman.symle wæs þy sæmra, þonne ic sweorde drep Its strength ever waned, when with weapon I struckferhðgeniðlan, fyr unswiðor that fatal foe, and the fire less stronglyweoll of gewitte. Wergendra/ to lyt flowed from its head. -- Too few the heroesþrong ymbe þeoden, þa hyne sio þrag becwom. in throe of contest that thronged to our king!Nu/ sceal sincþego ond swyrdgifu, Now gift of treasure and girding of sword,eall eðelwyn eowrum cynne, joy of the house and home-delightlufen alicgean; londrihtes mot shall fail your folk; his freehold-landþære mægburge monna æghwylc every clansman within your kinidel hweorfan, syððan æðelingas shall lose and leave, when lords highbornfeorran gefricgean fleam eowerne, hear afar of that flight of yours,domleasan dæd. Deað bið sella a fameless deed. Yea, death is bettereorla gehwylcum þonne edwitlif. for liegemen all than a life of shame!"Heht ða þæt heaðoweorc to hagan biodan THAT battle-toil bade he at burg to announce,up ofer ecgclif, þær þæt eorlweorod at the fort on the cliff, where, full of sorrow,morgenlongne dæg modgiomor sæt, all the morning earls had sat,bordhæbbende, bega on wenum, daring shieldsmen, in doubt of twain:endedogores ond eftcymes would they wail as dead, or welcome home,leofes monnes. Lyt swigode their lord beloved? Little kept backniwra spella se ðe næs gerad, of the tidings new, but told them all,ac he soðlice sægde ofer ealle: the herald that up the headland rode. --Nu is wilgeofa Wedra leoda, "Now the willing-giver to Weder folkdryhten Geata, deaðbedde fæst, in death-bed lies; the Lord of Geatswunað wælreste wyrmes dædum. on the slaughter-bed sleeps by the serpent's deed!Him on efn ligeð ealdorgewinna And beside him is stretched that slayer-of-mensexbennum/ seoc; sweorde ne meahte with knife-wounds sick: no sword availedon ðam aglæcean ænige þinga on the awesome thing in any wisewunde gewyrcean. Wiglaf siteð to work a wound. There Wiglaf sitteth,ofer Biowulfe, byre Wihstanes, Weohstan's bairn, by Beowulf's side,eorl ofer oðrum unlifigendum, the living earl by the other dead,healdeð higemæðum heafodwearde and heavy of heart a head-watch keepsleofes ond laðes. Nu ys leodum wen o'er friend and foe. -- Now our folk may lookorleghwile, syððan underne/ for waging of war when once unhiddenFroncum ond Frysum fyll cyninges to Frisian and Frank the fall of the kingwide weorðeð. Wæs sio wroht scepen is spread afar. -- The strife beganheard wið Hugas, syððan Higelac cwom when hot on the Hugas Hygelac fellfaran flotherge on Fresna land, and fared with his fleet to the Frisian land.þær hyne Hetware hilde genægdon/, Him there the Hetwaras humbled in war,elne geeodon mid ofermægene, plied with such prowess their power o'erwhelmingþæt se byrnwiga bugan sceolde, that the bold-in-battle bowed beneath itfeoll on feðan, nalles frætwe geaf and fell in fight. To his friends no wiseealdor dugoðe. Us wæs a syððan could that earl give treasure! And ever sinceMerewioingas milts ungyfeðe. the Merowings' favor has failed us wholly.Ne ic to/ Sweoðeode sibbe oððe treowe Nor aught expect I of peace and faithwihte ne wene, ac wæs wide cuð from Swedish folk. 'Twas spread afarþætte Ongenðio ealdre besnyðede how Ongentheow reft at RavenswoodHæþcen Hreþling wið Hrefnawudu, Haethcyn Hrethling of hope and life,þa for onmedlan ærest gesohton when the folk of Geats for the first time soughtGeata leode Guðscilfingas. in wanton pride the Warlike-Scylfings.Sona him se froda fæder Ohtheres, Soon the sage old sire of Ohtere,eald ond egesfull, ondslyht/ ageaf, ancient and awful, gave answering blow;abreot brimwisan, bryd ahredde/, the sea-king he slew, and his spouse redeemed,gomela iomeowlan/ golde berofene, his good wife rescued, though robbed of her gold,Onelan modor ond Ohtheres, mother of Ohtere and Onela.ond ða folgode feorhgeniðlan, Then he followed his foes, who fled before himoððæt hi oðeodon earfoðlice sore beset and stole their way,in Hrefnesholt hlafordlease. bereft of a ruler, to Ravenswood.Besæt ða sinherge sweorda lafe, With his host he besieged there what swords had left,wundum werge, wean oft gehet the weary and wounded; woes he threatenedearmre teohhe ondlonge niht, the whole night through to that hard-pressed throng:cwæð, he on mergenne meces ecgum some with the morrow his sword should kill,getan wolde, sum on galgtreowum/ some should go to the gallows-treefuglum/ to gamene. Frofor eft gelamp for rapture of ravens. But rescue camesarigmodum somod ærdæge, with dawn of day for those desperate mensyððan hie Hygelaces horn ond byman, when they heard the horn of Hygelac sound,gealdor ongeaton, þa se goda com tones of his trumpet; the trusty kingleoda dugoðe on last faran. had followed their trail with faithful band.Wæs sio swatswaðu Sweona/ ond Geata, "THE bloody swath of Swedes and Geatswælræs weora wide gesyne, and the storm of their strife, were seen afar,hu ða folc mid him fæhðe towehton. how folk against folk the fight had wakened.Gewat him ða se goda mid his gædelingum, The ancient king with his atheling bandfrod, felageomor, fæsten secean, sought his citadel, sorrowing much:eorl Ongenþio, ufor oncirde; Ongentheow earl went up to his burg.hæfde Higelaces hilde gefrunen, He had tested Hygelac's hardihood,wlonces wigcræft, wiðres ne truwode, the proud one's prowess, would prove it no longer,þæt he sæmannum onsacan mihte, defied no more those fighting-wanderersheaðoliðendum hord forstandan, nor hoped from the seamen to save his hoard,bearn ond bryde; beah eft þonan his bairn and his bride: so he bent him again,eald under eorðweall. þa wæs æht boden old, to his earth-walls. Yet after him cameSweona leodum, segn Higelaces/ with slaughter for Swedes the standards of Hygelacfreoðowong þone forð/ ofereodon, o'er peaceful plains in pride advancing,syððan Hreðlingas to hagan þrungon. till Hrethelings fought in the fenced town.þær wearð Ongenðiow ecgum sweorda/, Then Ongentheow with edge of sword,blondenfexa, on bid wrecen, the hoary-bearded, was held at bay,þæt se þeodcyning ðafian sceolde and the folk-king there was forced to sufferEafores anne dom. Hyne yrringa Eofor's anger. In ire, at the kingWulf Wonreding wæpne geræhte, Wulf Wonreding with weapon struck;þæt him for swenge swat ædrum sprong and the chieftain's blood, for that blow, in streamsforð under fexe. Næs he forht swa ðeh, flowed 'neath his hair. No fear felt he,gomela Scilfing, ac forgeald hraðe stout old Scylfing, but straightway repaidwyrsan wrixle wælhlem þone, in better bargain that bitter strokesyððan ðeodcyning þyder oncirde. and faced his foe with fell intent.Ne meahte se snella sunu Wonredes Nor swift enough was the son of Wonredealdum ceorle ondslyht/ giofan, answer to render the aged chief;ac he him on heafde helm ær gescer, too soon on his head the helm was cloven;þæt he blode fah bugan sceolde, blood-bedecked he bowed to earth,feoll on foldan; næs he fæge þa git, and fell adown; not doomed was he yet,ac he hyne gewyrpte, þeah ðe him wund hrine. and well he waxed, though the wound was sore.Let se hearda Higelaces þegn Then the hardy Hygelac-thane,bradne/ mece, þa his broðor læg, when his brother fell, with broad brand smote,eald sweord eotonisc, entiscne helm giants' sword crashing through giants'-helmbrecan ofer bordweal; ða gebeah cyning, across the shield-wall: sank the king,folces hyrde, wæs in feorh dropen. his folk's old herdsman, fatally hurt.ða wæron monige þe his mæg wriðon, There were many to bind the brother's woundsricone arærdon, ða him gerymed wearð and lift him, fast as fate allowedþæt hie wælstowe wealdan moston. his people to wield the place-of-war.þenden reafode rinc oðerne, But Eofor took from Ongentheow,nam on Ongenðio irenbyrnan, earl from other, the iron-breastplate,heard swyrd hilted ond his helm somod, hard sword hilted, and helmet too,hares hyrste Higelace bær. and the hoar-chief's harness to Hygelac carried,He/ ðam/ frætwum feng ond him fægre gehet who took the trappings, and truly promisedleana mid/ leodum, ond gelæste/ swa. rich fee 'mid folk, -- and fulfilled it so.geald þone guðræs Geata dryhten, For that grim strife gave the Geatish lord,Hreðles eafora, þa he to ham becom, Hrethel's offspring, when home he came,Iofore ond Wulfe mid ofermaðmum, to Eofor and Wulf a wealth of treasure,sealde hiora gehwæðrum hund þusenda Each of them had a hundred thousandlandes ond locenra beaga ne ðorfte him ða lean oðwitan in land and linked rings; nor at less price reckonedmon on middangearde, syððan/ hie ða mærða geslogon, mid-earth men such mighty deeds!ond ða Iofore forgeaf angan dohtor, And to Eofor he gave his only daughterhamweorðunge, hyldo to wedde. in pledge of grace, the pride of his home.þæt ys sio fæhðo ond se feondscipe, "Such is the feud, the foeman's rage,wælnið wera, ðæs ðe ic wen/ hafo, death-hate of men: so I deem it sureþe us seceað to Sweona leoda, that the Swedish folk will seek us homesyððan hie gefricgeað frean userne for this fall of their friends, the fighting-Scylfings,ealdorleasne, þone ðe ær geheold when once they learn that our warrior leaderwið hettendum hord ond rice lifeless lies, who land and hoardæfter hæleða hryre, hwate Scildingas, ever defended from all his foes,folcred fremede oððe furður gen furthered his folk's weal, finished his courseeorlscipe efnde. Nu/ is ofost betost a hardy hero. -- Now haste is best,þæt we þeodcyning þær sceawian that we go to gaze on our Geatish lord,ond þone gebringan, þe us beagas geaf, and bear the bountiful breaker-of-ringson adfære. Ne scel anes hwæt to the funeral pyre. No fragments merelymeltan mid þam modigan, ac þær is maðma hord, shall burn with the warrior. Wealth of jewels,gold unrime grimme geceapod/, gold untold and gained in terror,ond nu æt siðestan sylfes feore treasure at last with his life obtained,beagas gebohte/. þa sceall brond fretan, all of that booty the brands shall take,æled þeccean, nalles eorl wegan fire shall eat it. No earl must carrymaððum to gemyndum, ne mægð scyne memorial jewel. No maiden fairhabban on healse hringweorðunge, shall wreathe her neck with noble ring:ac sceal geomormod, golde bereafod, nay, sad in spirit and shorn of her gold,oft nalles æne elland tredan, oft shall she pass o'er paths of exilenu se herewisa hleahtor alegde, now our lord all laughter has laid aside,gamen ond gleodream. Forðon sceall gar wesan all mirth and revel. Many a spearmonig, morgenceald, mundum bewunden, morning-cold shall be clasped amain,hæfen on handa, nalles hearpan sweg lifted aloft; nor shall lilt of harpwigend weccean, ac se wonna hrefn those warriors wake; but the wan-hued raven,fus ofer fægum fela reordian, fain o'er the fallen, his feast shall praiseearne secgan hu him æt æte speow, and boast to the eagle how bravely he ateþenden he wið wulf wæl reafode. when he and the wolf were wasting the slain."Swa se secg hwata secggende wæs So he told his sorrowful tidings,laðra spella; he ne leag fela and little he lied, the loyal manwyrda ne worda. Weorod eall aras; of word or of work. The warriors rose;eodon unbliðe under Earnanæs, sad, they climbed to the Cliff-of-Eagles,wollenteare wundur/ sceawian. went, welling with tears, the wonder to view.Fundon ða on sande sawulleasne Found on the sand there, stretched at rest,hlimbed healdan þone þe him hringas geaf their lifeless lord, who had lavished ringsærran mælum; þa wæs endedæg of old upon them. Ending-daygodum gegongen, þæt se guðcyning, had dawned on the doughty-one; death had seizedWedra þeoden, wundordeaðe swealt. in woful slaughter the Weders' king.ær hi þær gesegan syllicran wiht, There saw they, besides, the strangest being,wyrm on wonge wiðerræhtes þær loathsome, lying their leader near,laðne/ licgean; wæs se legdraca prone on the field. The fiery dragon,grimlic, gryrefah/, gledum beswæled. fearful fiend, with flame was scorched.Se wæs fiftiges fotgemearces Reckoned by feet, it was fifty measureslang on legere, lyftwynne heold in length as it lay. Aloft erewhilenihtes hwilum, nyðer eft gewat it had revelled by night, and anon come back,dennes niosian; wæs ða deaðe fæst, seeking its den; now in death's sure clutchhæfde eorðscrafa ende genyttod. it had come to the end of its earth-hall joys.Him big stodan bunan ond orcas, By it there stood the stoups and jars;discas lagon ond dyre swyrd, dishes lay there, and dear-decked swordsomige, þurhetone, swa hie wið eorðan fæðm eaten with rust, as, on earth's lap resting,þusend wintra þær eardodon. a thousand winters they waited there.þonne wæs þæt yrfe, eacencræftig, For all that heritage huge, that goldiumonna gold galdre bewunden, of bygone men, was bound by a spell,þæt ðam hringsele hrinan ne moste so the treasure-hall could be touched by nonegumena ænig, nefne god sylfa, of human kind, -- save that Heaven's King,sigora soðcyning, sealde þam ðe he wolde God himself, might give whom he would,he is manna gehyld hord openian, Helper of Heroes, the hoard to open, --efne swa hwylcum manna swa him gemet ðuhte. even such a man as seemed to him meet.þa wæs gesyne þæt se sið ne ðah A PERILOUS path, it proved, he trodþam ðe unrihte inne gehydde who heinously hid, that hall within,wræte/ under wealle. Weard ær ofsloh wealth under wall! Its watcher had killedfeara sumne; þa sio fæhð gewearð one of a few, and the feud was avengedgewrecen wraðlice. Wundur hwar þonne in woful fashion. Wondrous seems it,eorl ellenrof ende gefere what manner a man of might and valorlifgesceafta, þonne leng ne mæg oft ends his life, when the earl no longermon mid his magum/ meduseld buan. in mead-hall may live with loving friends.Swa wæs Biowulfe, þa he biorges weard So Beowulf, when that barrow's wardensohte, searoniðas; seolfa ne cuðe he sought, and the struggle; himself knew notþurh hwæt his worulde gedal weorðan sceolde. in what wise he should wend from the world at last.Swa hit oð domes dæg diope benemdon For princes potent, who placed the gold,þeodnas mære, þa ðæt þær dydon, with a curse to doomsday covered it deep,þæt se secg wære synnum scildig, so that marked with sin the man should be,hergum geheaðerod, hellbendum fæst, hedged with horrors, in hell-bonds fast,wommum gewitnad, se ðone wong strude/, racked with plagues, who should rob their hoard.næs he goldhwæte gearwor hæfde Yet no greed for gold, but the grace of heaven,agendes est ær gesceawod. ever the king had kept in view.Wiglaf maðelode, Wihstanes sunu: Wiglaf spake, the son of Weohstan:--Oft sceall eorl monig anes willan "At the mandate of one, oft warriors manywræc adreogan/, swa us geworden is. sorrow must suffer; and so must we.Ne meahton we gelæran leofne þeoden, The people's-shepherd showed not aughtrices hyrde, ræd ænigne, of care for our counsel, king beloved!þæt he ne grette goldweard þone, That guardian of gold he should grapple not, urged we,lete hyne licgean þær he longe wæs, but let him lie where he long had beenwicum wunian oð woruldende; in his earth-hall waiting the end of the world,heold on heahgesceap. Hord ys gesceawod, the hest of heaven. -- This hoard is oursgrimme gegongen; wæs þæt gifeðe to swið but grievously gotten; too grim the fateþe ðone þeodcyning/ þyder ontyhte. which thither carried our king and lord.Ic wæs þær inne ond þæt eall geondseh, I was within there, and all I viewed,recedes geatwa, þa me gerymed wæs, the chambered treasure, when chance allowed menealles swæslice sið alyfed (and my path was made in no pleasant wise)inn under eorðweall. Ic on ofoste gefeng under the earth-wall. Eager, I seizedmicle mid mundum mægenbyrðenne such heap from the hoard as hands could bearhordgestreona, hider ut ætbær and hurriedly carried it hither backcyninge minum. Cwico wæs þa gena, to my liege and lord. Alive was he still,wis ond gewittig; worn eall gespræc still wielding his wits. The wise old mangomol on gehðo ond eowic gretan het, spake much in his sorrow, and sent you greetingsbæd þæt ge geworhton æfter wines dædum and bade that ye build, when he breathed no more,in bælstede beorh þone hean, on the place of his balefire a barrow high,micelne ond mærne, swa he manna wæs memorial mighty. Of men was hewigend weorðfullost wide geond eorðan, worthiest warrior wide earth o'erþenden he burhwelan brucan moste. the while he had joy of his jewels and burg.Uton nu efstan oðre siðe/, Let us set out in haste now, the second timeseon ond secean searogimma/ geþræc, to see and search this store of treasure,wundur under wealle; ic eow wisige, these wall-hid wonders, -- the way I show you, --þæt ge genoge neon sceawiað where, gathered near, ye may gaze your fillbeagas ond brad gold. Sie sio bær gearo, at broad-gold and rings. Let the bier, soon made,ædre geæfned, þonne we ut cymen, be all in order when out we come,ond þonne geferian frean userne, our king and captain to carry thitherleofne mannan, þær he longe sceal -- man beloved -- where long he shall bideon ðæs waldendes wære geþolian. safe in the shelter of sovran God."Het ða gebeodan byre Wihstanes, Then the bairn of Weohstan bade command,hæle hildedior, hæleða monegum hardy chief, to heroes manyboldagendra, þæt hie bælwudu that owned their homesteads, hither to bringfeorran feredon, folcagende, firewood from far -- o'er the folk they ruled --godum togenes: Nu sceal gled fretan, for the famed-one's funeral. " Fire shall devourweaxan wonna leg wigena strengel, and wan flames feed on the fearless warriorþone ðe oft gebad isernscure, who oft stood stout in the iron-shower,þonne stræla storm strengum gebæded when, sped from the string, a storm of arrowsscoc ofer scildweall, sceft nytte heold, shot o'er the shield-wall: the shaft held firm,feðergearwum/ fus flane fulleode. featly feathered, followed the barb."Huru se snotra sunu Wihstanes And now the sage young son of Weohstanacigde of corðre cyninges/ þegnas seven chose of the chieftain's thanes,syfone/ tosomne/, þa selestan, the best he found that band within,eode eahta sum under inwithrof and went with these warriors, one of eight,hilderinca/; sum on handa bær under hostile roof. In hand one boreæledleoman, se ðe on orde geong. a lighted torch and led the way.Næs ða on hlytme hwa þæt hord strude, No lots they cast for keeping the hoardsyððan orwearde ænigne dæl when once the warriors saw it in hall,secgas gesegon on sele wunian, altogether without a guardian,læne licgan; lyt ænig mearn lying there lost. And little they mournedþæt hi ofostlice/ ut geferedon when they had hastily haled it out,dyre maðmas. Dracan ec scufun, dear-bought treasure! The dragon they cast,wyrm ofer weallclif, leton weg niman, the worm, o'er the wall for the wave to take,flod fæðmian frætwa hyrde. and surges swallowed that shepherd of gems.þa wæs wunden gold on wæn hladen, Then the woven gold on a wain was laden --æghwæs unrim, æþeling/ boren, countless quite! -- and the king was borne,har hilderinc to Hronesnæsse. hoary hero, to Hrones-Ness.Him ða gegiredan Geata leode THEN fashioned for him the folk of Geatsad on eorðan unwaclicne, firm on the earth a funeral-pile,helmum/ behongen, hildebordum, and hung it with helmets and harness of warbeorhtum byrnum, swa he bena wæs; and breastplates bright, as the boon he asked;alegdon ða tomiddes mærne þeoden and they laid amid it the mighty chieftain,hæleð hiofende, hlaford/ leofne. heroes mourning their master dear.Ongunnon þa on beorge bælfyra mæst Then on the hill that hugest of balefireswigend weccan; wudurec/ astah, the warriors wakened. Wood-smoke rosesweart ofer swioðole/, swogende leg black over blaze, and blent was the roarwope bewunden windblond gelæg, of flame with weeping (the wind was still),oðþæt he ða banhus gebrocen hæfde/, till the fire had broken the frame of bones,hat on hreðre. Higum unrote hot at the heart. In heavy moodmodceare mændon, mondryhtnes cwealm/; their misery moaned they, their master's death.swylce giomorgyd Geatisc/ meowle Wailing her woe, the widow old,bundenheorde/ her hair upbound, for Beowulf's deathsong/ sorgcearig swiðe/ geneahhe sung in her sorrow, and said full oftþæt hio hyre heofungdagas/ hearde ondrede/, she dreaded the doleful days to come,wælfylla worn/, werudes egesan, deaths enow, and doom of battle,hynðo ond hæftnyd/. Heofon rece sweag/. and shame. -- The smoke by the sky was devoured.Geworhton þa Wedra leode The folk of the Weders fashioned therehleo on hoe, se wæs heah ond brad, on the headland a barrow broad and high,wægliðendum wide gesyne, by ocean-farers far descried:ond betimbredon/ on tyn dagum in ten days' time their toil had raised it,beadurofes becn, bronda lafe the battle-brave's beacon. Round brands of the pyrewealle beworhton, swa hyt weorðlicost a wall they built, the worthiest everforesnotre men findan mihton. that wit could prompt in their wisest men.Hi on beorg dydon beg ond siglu, They placed in the barrow that precious booty,eall swylce hyrsta, swylce on horde ær the rounds and the rings they had reft erewhile,niðhedige men genumen hæfdon, hardy heroes, from hoard in cave, --forleton eorla gestreon eorðan healdan, trusting the ground with treasure of earls,gold on greote, þær hit nu gen lifað gold in the earth, where ever it lieseldum swa unnyt swa hit/ æror/ wæs. useless to men as of yore it was.þa ymbe hlæw riodan hildediore, Then about that barrow the battle-keen rode,æþelinga bearn, ealra twelfe/, atheling-born, a band of twelve,woldon ceare/ cwiðan ond kyning mænan, lament to make, to mourn their king,wordgyd wrecan ond ymb wer/ sprecan; chant their dirge, and their chieftain honor.eahtodan eorlscipe ond his ellenweorc They praised his earlship, his acts of prowessduguðum demdon, swa hit gedefe/ bið/ worthily witnessed: and well it isþæt mon his winedryhten wordum herge, that men their master-friend mightily laud,ferhðum freoge/, þonne he forð scile heartily love, when hence he goesof lichaman læded/ weorðan. from life in the body forlorn away.Swa begnornodon Geata leode Thus made their mourning the men of Geatland,hlafordes/ hryre/, heorðgeneatas, for their hero's passing his hearth-companions:cwædon þæt he wære wyruldcyninga quoth that of all the kings of earth,manna/ mildust ond monðwærust/, of men he was mildest and most beloved,leodum liðost ond lofgeornost. to his kin the kindest, keenest for praise.

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