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Poet, dramatist, and essayist. Former bank clerk, manual laborer, and journalist; freelancer for Tworczosc (literary review), 1955-76; editor for Przegld Kupiecki ( "Merchant's Gazette"), 1956; co-editor of Poezja (poetry journal), 1965-68, resigned in protest of anti-Semitic policies. Professor of modern European literature at California State College (now University), Los Angeles, 1970; professor at University of Gdansk, Gdansk, Poland, 1972. Gave poetry readings at universities and for national organizations throughout the United States, including the World Poetry Conference, State University of New York at Stony Brook, 1968, and Lincoln Center Festival, 1968.